Gruesome Images Stop Smokers
In numerous health surveys around the world many smokers report that graphic images motivate them to quit. Non-smokers say they feel deterred from ever picking up a pack.
What's the Latest Development?
The F.D.A. has brought new health warnings to packs of cigarettes for the first time in 25 years. "The nine pictures that must appear on all adverts and cigarette packages sold in the U.S. by September 2011 include a cancerous mouth with lesions and rotting teeth, a man smoking through a tracheotomy hole and a diseased lung. ... 'It's been a long time in coming, says Roy Herbst of Yale University and chair of the American Association for Cancer Research's Task Force on Tobacco and Cancer. 'We hope they will dissuade people from buying and using cigarettes.'"
What's the Big Idea?
While there are mixed results as to the deterrent effect of gruesome images on packs of cigarettes, the latest research seems to support the government's new photographic health warnings. "According to Ellen Peters of Ohio State University, who conducted a 2007 study that found Canada's morbid warning pictures would be effective in the U.S. too, the message is clear. 'Graphic warning labels encourage negative emotional reactions to cigarettes and those emotions become associated with smoking cues,' she says."
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A new study explores how certain personality traits affect individuals' attitudes on obesity in others.
- The study compared personality traits and obesity views among more than 3,000 mothers.
- The results showed that the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are linked to more negative views and behaviors related to obesity.
- People who scored high in conscientiousness are more likely to experience "fat phobia.
Meanwhile, Spaniards are the least likely to say their culture is superior to others.
- Survey by Pew Research Center shows great variation in chauvinism across Europe.
- Eight most chauvinist countries are in the east, and include Russia.
- British much more likely than French (and slightly more likely than Germans) to say their culture is "superior" to others.
The history of the Geneva Conventions tells us how the international community draws the line on brutality.
- Henry Dunant's work led to the Red Cross and conventions on treating prisoners humanely.
- Four Geneva Conventions defined the rules for prisoners of war, torture, naval and medical personnel and more.
- Amendments to the agreements reflect the modern world but have not been ratified by all countries.
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