A genetic propensity may be responsible for some alcohol dependence, according to new research which links alcoholism to a cluster of genes on chromosome 11.
A genetic propensity may be responsible for some alcohol dependence, according to new research which links alcoholism to a cluster of genes on chromosome 11. "Previous studies have looked at one or a few genes at a time, choosing the genes based upon hypotheses about possible mechanisms underlying differences in risk for alcoholism," Howard J. Edenberg, Distinguished Professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine and corresponding author for the study, told Science Daily. "We chose to examine the entire genome, all the genes at once, as an unbiased approach that has the potential of uncovering previously unsuspected genes." "Geneticists use many strategies to find gene locations, and genes," said David Goldman, section chief of Human Neurogenetics at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. "Here, approximately one million genetic polymorphisms or variants were analyzed in a population framework of approximately 1400 unrelated individuals. Then the most significant variants were followed up in several ways: 'Were they also associated in families?' 'Were they expressed in brain?' 'Were their patterns of expression altered by alcohol?' Several were. [These results] illustrate the power of new genetic technology to perform a genome-wide sieving, something that was impossible only a few years ago."
In a breakthrough for nuclear fusion research, scientists at China's Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor have produced temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion on Earth.
- The EAST reactor was able to heat hydrogen to temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius.
- Nuclear fusion could someday provide the planet with a virtually limitless supply of clean energy.
- Still, scientists have many other obstacles to pass before fusion technology becomes a viable energy source.
Military recruits are supposed to be assessed to see whether they're fit for service. What happens when they're not?
- During the Vietnam War, Robert McNamara began a program called Project 100,000.
- The program brought over 300,000 men to Vietnam who failed to meet minimum criteria for military service, both physically and mentally.
- Project 100,000 recruits were killed in disproportionate numbers and fared worse after their military service than their civilian peers, making the program one of the biggest—and possibly cruelest—mistakes of the Vietnam War.
The 116th Congress is set to break records in term of diversity among its lawmakers, though those changes are coming almost entirely from Democrats.
- Women and nonwhite candidates made record gains in the 2018 midterms.
- In total, almost half of the newly elected Congressional representatives are not white men.
- Those changes come almost entirely from Democrats; Republican members-elect are all white men except for one woman.
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