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Here's What 19th-Century American Cartoonists Thought of Russia
Way before there was Cracked or Mad magazine, there was Puck, a weekly satirical publication that came out of St. Louis, Missouri in 1871. Here are some of the incredible full-color illustrations of that era's political issues.
Way before there was Cracked or Mad magazine, there was Puck, a weekly political satire publication out of St. Louis, Missouri. The founder of Puck, Joseph Ferdinand Keppler, published it in English and German, and each issue included several full-color illustrations: on the cover, on the background and on a double-page centerfold. Puck’s images were full of pawky humor that illustrated the political aspects and world line-up before the First World War. By 1884, its success was notable, with a circulation of at least 125,000 copies.
The name Puck was borrowed from the trickster character in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and incarnations of the same character have appeared in tales and myths all over the world: in old Norse, Swedish, Icelandic, Frisian, Welsh, Cornish, Irish and other cultures. In 1871, with the first issue of Puck, the spirit of mischief came to the United States.
Some of Puck’s 19th century caricatures depicted Tsar Nicholas II, the last emperor of the Russian Empire. His reign ended in the economic and military collapse of one of the foremost great powers of the world.
For most of the 19th century U.S.-Russian relationships were quite rosy due to a largely untold alliance between President Abraham Lincoln and Russian Tsar Alexander II, and that relationship is believed to have been the key to the North winning the U.S. Civil War. However, in the late 19th century, the United States, previously viewed as an agricultural superpower, started to equip itself for a different role, changing the dynamic for good.
Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War was largely contributed to Wall Street financiers, who loaned Japan the capital to buy U.S.-built warships. The defeat dealt a painful blow to the political prestige of Russian Empire. In 1914, a political controversy with Germany and Austria-Hungary over the independence of the Serbian kingdom dragged Russia into WWI. Like all riches to rags story, Russia’s changing status made great material for political humor and commentary in publications such as Puck.
The first of many tragic events that hit Nicholas II’s reign was the 1896 Khodynka Tragedy, when the festivities following Nicholas II’s coronation led to a human stampede and death of 1,389 spectators. In 1905, a bloody wave of anti-Jewish pogroms reached its peak in Odessa, modern Ukraine, where almost 2,500 Jews were killed and many more wounded. In the same year, an unarmed demonstration that aimed to present a petition to the Tsar was suppressed violently, with hundreds of victims. Due to these events, the last emperor earned the nickname “Nicholas the Bloody”.
Nicholas, his wife Alexandra, and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei were killed by the Bolsheviks on 17 July 1918. The family was canonized in 1981 as new martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church.
The U.S. perception of the political agenda of the late Russian Empire and other major world powers represents itself in Puck magazine’s lithographs. The whole collection is available to view now on Picryl.
A voice from the past / Frank A. Nankivell. 1904
Stop your cruel oppression of the Jews / Flohri. 1903
Kishineff must be paid for - with interest / Keppler. 1904
The European "concert" / J.S. Pughe. 1896
When? / Keppler. 1904
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Humans are particularly prone to shiver when a group does or thinks the same thing at the same time.
A few years ago, I proposed that the feeling of cold in one's spine, while for example watching a film or listening to music, corresponds to an event when our vital need for cognition is satisfied.
Certain colors are globally linked to certain feelings, the study reveals.
- Color psychology is often used in marketing to alter your perception of products and services.
- Various studies and experiments across multiple years have given us more insight into the link between personality and color.
- The results of a new study spanning 6 continents (30 nations) shows universal correlations between colors and emotions around the globe.
The root of color psychology<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9e40cf62fa8922fcca6c57e2fcb215b6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OM4fXB23pCQ?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There is a very likely chance you've even been "fooled" by color marketing in the past, or you've chosen one product over another subconsciously due to colors that were designed to influence your emotions.<br></p><p>Companies that want to be known for being dependable often use blue in their logos, for example (Dell, HP, IBM). Companies that want to be perceived as fun and exciting go for a splash of orange (Fanta, Nickelodeon, even Amazon). Green is associated with natural, peaceful emotions and is often used by companies like Whole Foods and Tropicana. </p><p><strong>Your favorite color says a lot about your personality. </strong></p><p>Various studies and experiments across multiple years (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49595886_Personality_Traits_and_Colour_Preferences" target="_blank">2010</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.12087" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2014</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1170-1448038739.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2015</a>, and more recently in <a href="https://www.verywellmind.com/color-psychology-2795824#modern-research-on-color-psychology" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019</a>) have given us more insight into the link between your personality and your favorite color.</p><p>Red, for example, is considered a bold color and is associated with feelings such as excitement, passion, anger, danger, energy, and love. The personality traits of this color might be someone who is bold, a little impulsive, and who loves adventure. </p><p>Orange, on the other hand, is considered representative of creativity, happiness, and freedom. The personality traits of this color can be fun, playful, cheerful, nurturing, and productive. Read more about color psychology and personalities <a href="https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/color-personality-psychology?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2" target="_self">here</a>.</p>
Study reveals which colors best suit which emotions around the globe<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYzMTk5OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyODc4OTg5OH0.bY-pu-MFNivdJLDJuBp9TBKrhwuy7hngUa1aIWxQMVw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C93%2C0%2C94&height=700" id="33fff" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1a5d7bb00dac94bd6201616789fb4882" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of color psychology how colors make us feel color emotions" />
Certain colors are globally ties to certain emotions, the study reveals.
Image by agsandrew on Shutterstock<p>In this particular survey, participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire which involved assigning 20 emotions to 12 different color terms. They were also asked to specify the intensity with which they associated the color term with the emotion.</p><p><strong>Certain colors are globally linked to certain emotions, the study reveals.</strong></p><p>The results of this study showed a few definite correlations between colors and emotions throughout the globe. Red, for example, is the only color that is strongly associated with both negative (anger) and positive (love) feelings. Brown, on the other end of the spectrum, is the color that triggers the fewest emotions globally.<br></p><p>The color white is closely associated with sadness in China, while purple is what is closely associated with sadness in Greece. This can be traced back to the roots of each culture, with white being worn at funerals in China and dark purple being the Greek Orthodox Church's color of mourning. </p><p>Yellow is more associated with joy, specifically in countries that see less sunshine. Meanwhile, its association with joy is weaker in areas that have greater exposure to sunshine. </p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150247.htm" target="_blank">According to Dr. Oberfeld-Twistel</a>, it is difficult to say exactly what the causes for global similarities and differences are. "There is a range of possible influencing factors: language, culture, religion, climate, the history of human development, the human perceptual system."</p>