Happiness Is A Longitudinal Study
What's the exact recipe for happiness? What's the alchemy to assure success? What are the clear signs that in your twenties you will be off the tracks in your forties? You could delve deep into the Big Think archives for these answers, or you could take note of a Harvard endeavor that began in 1942.
Longitudinal case studies can be breathtakingly boring and uninsightful, but, given the right documentary lens, they can authoritatively highlight life's great lessons.
There's the masterful BBC series Seven Up! which interviews 14 Brits every seven years across five decades. Throughout the conversations, the importance of social class in British society gets thorough treatment, revealing a few surprises and confirming prior assumptions.
In 1937 Harvard psychiatrist George Vaillant started a little Seven Up of his own, the Grant Study, which the Atlantic brings to light this month.
With the aim of reducing “the disharmony of the world at large,” Vaillant traced, and continues to trace, the life histories of 269 Harvard students investigating in large part how well his subjects were able to adapt to life's troubles and the quotient of happiness they afforded themselves by their adaptations.
The crux of one's success or failure to adapt, Vaillant found, was in an individual's defense mechanisms. As the magazine writes:
"Vaillant explains defenses as the mental equivalent of a basic biological process. When we cut ourselves, for example, our blood clots—a swift and involuntary response that maintains homeostasis. Similarly, when we encounter a challenge large or small—a mother’s death or a broken shoelace—our defenses float us through the emotional swamp. And just as clotting can save us from bleeding to death—or plug a coronary artery and lead to a heart attack—defenses can spell our redemption or ruin."
In introducing the Grant Study, Vaillant elaborates on "the miserable process of getting from 25 to 35." Take note, the whole life thing does get better over time, he says.
Before you tackle the Grant Study, listen to one of Big Think's neuroscientists, John Cacioppo, who gives us a working definition of happiness.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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