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A clever new study definitively measures how long it takes for quantum particles to pass through a barrier.
- Quantum particles can tunnel through seemingly impassable barriers, popping up on the other side.
- Quantum tunneling is not a new discovery, but there's a lot that's unknown about it.
- By super-cooling rubidium particles, researchers use their spinning as a magnetic timer.
When it comes to weird behavior, there's nothing quite like the quantum world. On top of that world-class head scratcher entanglement, there's also quantum tunneling — the mysterious process in which particles somehow find their way through what should be impenetrable barriers.
Exactly why or even how quantum tunneling happens is unknown: Do particles just pop over to the other side instantaneously in the same way entangled particles interact? Or do they progressively tunnel through? Previous research has been conflicting.
That quantum tunneling occurs has not been a matter of debate since it was discovered in the 1920s. When IBM famously wrote their name on a nickel substrate using 35 xenon atoms, they used a scanning tunneling microscope to see what they were doing. And tunnel diodes are fast-switching semiconductors that derive their negative resistance from quantum tunneling.
Nonetheless, "Quantum tunneling is one of the most puzzling of quantum phenomena," says Aephraim Steinberg of the Quantum Information Science Program at Canadian Institute for Advanced Research in Toronto to Live Science. Speaking with Scientific American he explains, "It's as though the particle dug a tunnel under the hill and appeared on the other."
Steinberg is a co-author of a study just published in the journal Nature that presents a series of clever experiments that allowed researchers to measure the amount of time it takes tunneling particles to find their way through a barrier. "And it is fantastic that we're now able to actually study it in this way."
Frozen rubidium atoms
Image source: Viktoriia Debopre/Shutterstock/Big Think
One of the difficulties in ascertaining the time it takes for tunneling to occur is knowing precisely when it's begun and when it's finished. The authors of the new study solved this by devising a system based on particles' precession.
Subatomic particles all have magnetic qualities, and they spin, or "precess," like a top when they encounter an external magnetic field. With this in mind, the authors of the study decided to construct a barrier with a magnetic field, causing any particles passing through it to precess as they did so. They wouldn't precess before entering the field or after, so by observing and timing the duration of the particles' precession, the researchers could definitively identify the length of time it took them to tunnel through the barrier.
To construct their barrier, the scientists cooled about 8,000 rubidium atoms to a billionth of a degree above absolute zero. In this state, they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, AKA the fifth-known form of matter. When in this state, atoms slow down and can be clumped together rather than flying around independently at high speeds. (We've written before about a Bose-Einstein experiment in space.)
Using a laser, the researchers pusehd about 2,000 rubidium atoms together in a barrier about 1.3 micrometers thick, endowing it with a pseudo-magnetic field. Compared to a single rubidium atom, this is a very thick wall, comparable to a half a mile deep if you yourself were a foot thick.
With the wall prepared, a second laser nudged individual rubidium atoms toward it. Most of the atoms simply bounced off the barrier, but about 3% of them went right through as hoped. Precise measurement of their precession produced the result: It took them 0.61 milliseconds to get through.
Reactions to the study
Scientists not involved in the research find its results compelling.
"This is a beautiful experiment," according to Igor Litvinyuk of Griffith University in Australia. "Just to do it is a heroic effort." Drew Alton of Augustana University, in South Dakota tells Live Science, "The experiment is a breathtaking technical achievement."
What makes the researchers' results so exceptional is their unambiguity. Says Chad Orzel at Union College in New York, "Their experiment is ingeniously constructed to make it difficult to interpret as anything other than what they say." He calls the research, "one of the best examples you'll see of a thought experiment made real." Litvinyuk agrees: "I see no holes in this."
As for the researchers themselves, enhancements to their experimental apparatus are underway to help them learn more. "We're working on a new measurement where we make the barrier thicker," Steinberg said. In addition, there's also the interesting question of whether or not that 0.61-millisecond trip occurs at a steady rate: "It will be very interesting to see if the atoms' speed is constant or not."
Ready to see the future? Nanotronics CEO Matthew Putman talks innovation and the solutions that are right under our noses.
Innovation in manufacturing has crawled since the 1950s. That's about to speed up.
There are several things both men and women can do to actively boost low libido, according to research.
- Low libido or sudden changes in your sex drive can be overwhelming and cause embarrassment or shame, but this is a common problem that could have many different solutions.
- According to research, managing your anxiety/stress levels, maintaining a healthy diet and proper sleeping habits, and cutting down on things such as alcohol or smoking can all boost your libido.
- Low libido can have many causes (physical, emotional, medical, etc). If you find you are struggling with this and are not able to find a solution, consider consulting a doctor and/or sex therapist to discuss your concerns.
How to boost low libido in men<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1MDI1Ny9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTU5NzUzOTY5NH0.BXq9uzNS94ZwfC-VXQ3rH0eAyamxicB0-92Oc3mq2_U/img.jpg?width=980" id="e2e29" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="37a31e8b24ceaef85eb20b6c7e63e8ca" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="man sitting on couch frustrated and stressed concept of low libido in men low sex drive in men" />
Properly managing your stress and anxiety can boost libido in both men and women.
Photo by G-Stock Studio on Shutterstock<p>Struggling with low libido can feel isolating and embarrassing. However, according to a study linked in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19% of participants reported a low libido at the baseline of <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/91/7/2509/2656285" target="_blank">this testosterone study</a>.</p> <p><strong>If a male is experiencing low libido, there are several things that could be causing it, such as: </strong></p><ul><li>Physical issues (such as low testosterone, prescription medications, alcohol, and drug abuse) </li><li>Psychological issues (such as depression, stress, relationship tension)</li><li>Outside factors (such as problems at work, a death in the family, emotional turmoil) </li></ul> <p><strong>Talk to your partner about what you're experiencing. </strong></p><p>Low libido can be incredibly difficult to talk about with your partner, especially if it's causing problems in the relationship, but it could give you support and help you find alternative ways to connect until you find an answer. </p> <p><strong>Check your hormone levels and your health with a doctor. </strong></p><p>According to WebMD, around 28% of men with low testosterone also struggle with low libido. Having low or decreased testosterone levels can impact more than just your sex drive, as testosterone plays a few important roles in the body. Testosterone <a href="https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/understanding-how-testosterone-affects-men" target="_blank">has also been linked</a> to bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass, and strength. </p> <p>Completing a physical and bringing up low libido concerns with your doctor can help you rule out any physical things that could be causing your low sex drive. Perhaps a medication that you're on is giving an unwanted side effect (medications such as morphine, opioid pain relievers, corticosteroids and certain antidepressants <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/low-testosterone/conditions-that-cause-low-libido#medications" target="_blank">can impact your libido</a>), and you can be moved to another, or your doctor may insist on checking your testosterone levels.</p> <p>According to the American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines, adult men are considered to have low testosterone (or low T) if their levels fall below <a href="https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/testosterone-deficiency-guideline" target="_blank">300 nanograms per deciliter</a>. <a href="https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/low-testosterone/low-testosterone-diagnosis#:~:text=A%20simple%20blood%20test%20can,blood%20test%20in%20the%20morning." target="_blank">A simple blood test</a> will be able to tell your doctor your testosterone levels. </p> <p>Consider meeting with a sex therapist or counselor about any relationship struggles that could be impacting your libido. </p> <p><strong>Manage your anxiety. </strong></p><p>High levels of anxiety and stress are extremely common barriers to sexual functioning for both men and women. You can manage your anxiety by practicing good sleeping habits, exercising regularly, working to improve your relationship(s), speaking with a therapist, or consulting a doctor about anti-anxiety medications. </p> <p><strong>Regular exercise could be key to maintaining proper hormone levels and boosting sexual function. </strong></p><p>Strength training, walking, and swimming may all work to improve sexual function and libido (in both men and women). In fact, <a href="https://www.mdlinx.com/article/5-exercises-scientifically-proven-to-boost-libido/lfc-3510#:~:text=Strength%20training%2C%20Kegels%2C%20yoga%2C,finding%20holds%20in%20habitual%20exercisers." target="_blank">one-time acute exercise sessions have been linked to boosted sexual arousal</a> because of the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. </p>
How to boost low libido in women<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1MDI1NS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NTAyMDQwMX0.6mhDbzwIAjy5shAQWEE8mxxg0bMgSMdM_ET-84pnT-A/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=42%2C0%2C42%2C0&height=700" id="f5748" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="97ddb5446e4c4a1a0f026bf4f1d59b00" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="woman running on pavement in city concept of exercise boosting libido in women" />
Creating a healthy lifestyle (healthy eating and exercise habits) can help boost libido in both men and women.
Photo by lzf on Shutterstock<p>The sexual desires of women naturally fluctuate over the years for various reasons (pregnancy, menopause, illness, life events), and navigating the lows can be incredibly difficult.</p> <p><strong>If a female is experiencing low libido, there are several things that could be causing it, such as: </strong></p><ul><li>Physical problems (medical diseases, medications that cause low libido, where you are in your menstruation cycle, hormone changes, etc) can all be causes of low sex drive in women. </li><li>Many women experience severe changes in their hormones and sex drive during (and even years after) pregnancy or breast-feeding. </li><li>Lifestyle habits (including alcohol or drug consumption or smoking) can also dull your sex drive. </li><li>Fatigue or exhaustion is a commonly reported problem that impact sex drive among women. </li></ul> <p><strong>Communicate with your partner about what you're experiencing. </strong></p><p>According to <a href="http://www.healthywomen.org/sites/default/files/FSD_infographic_mech.pdf" target="_blank">a survey from the National Women's Health Resource Center</a>, 59% of women report that low sex drive has had a negative impact on their relationship, with up to 66% of women reporting the low sexual desire impacted communication in their relationship. </p> <p>Struggling with low sex drive and being unable to find an immediate fix can feel embarrassing and bring up a lot of insecurities - but talking openly about it with your partner can allow you to both understand what's happening and work together to solve the problem. </p> <p><strong>What you're eating could impact your libido. </strong></p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27784600" target="_blank">According to a 2015 review study</a>, adding things like maca, tribulus, gingko, and ginseng to your food could help improve sexual function. Additionally, maintaining a healthy (low sugar/high lean protein) diet <a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323918#natural-ways-to-boost-libido" target="_blank">can boost your sex drive</a> by promoting proper circulation and heart health. </p> <p><strong>Could a good night's sleep help boost libido? </strong></p><p><a href="https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/111751/jsm12858.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y" target="_blank">According to a small-scale study</a> (of female participants), many women explained that a good night's sleep before helped increase their sexual desire and arousal the next day. Women who reported longer sleeping times also reported better arousal levels the next day than those with shorter sleeping times. </p>
When should I consult a doctor about low libido?<p>Aside from open communication with your partner and lifestyle changes like a healthier diet, proper sleeping habits and managing stress, communication with doctors, sex therapists and counselors can all be extremely helpful in getting to the root of the problem.</p> <p><strong>You should consult a doctor about low libido if/when: </strong></p><ol><li>Your libido suddenly drops without any explanation </li><li>Additional symptoms appear (such as high blood pressure, pain, etc) </li><li>Your libido suddenly drops after a surgery or when you switch to a new medication </li><li>Your low libido is causing relationship problems or psychological distress on your and/or your partner </li></ol> <p>Enhancing your sex drive will take time, but it is possible to do if you and your partner are committed to trying new things to boost your libido and keep an open line of communication. </p>
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