Attacking the Human Genome: Biological-Based Crimes
The successful decoding of the human genome was a phenomenal scientific achievement. For the first time in the world’s history, the entire genetic code of the human species was fully available to scientific researchers. The fantastic accomplishment will provide untold advances in medicine and hold the potential to vastly decrease human suffering and illness.
But just as hackers cleverly and nefariously attack computer code, so too may it be possible–and even likely–that the human genomic code will face challenges from those with criminal intent. In effect, the human genome is merely another operating system waiting to be hacked. While information technology relies upon ones and zeros to deliver its coded instructions, the genome uses a DNA-base pair system made up of four smaller components known as adenine (A) which forms a base pair with thymine (T), as does guanine (G) with cytosine (C).
The entire field of genetic engineering is founded upon the theory that these base pairs may be manipulated for the betterment of humanity. But as costs to access this technology drop dramatically, bioengineering techniques are becoming available to the masses. As such, so called “bio-hackers” are already at work tinkering with the human genome.
Whole new organizations focused on the practice have been developed including the International Genetically Engineered Machine competition (iGEM), which is dedicated to the study and practice of Synthetic Biology. College student teams are given a kit of biological parts at the beginning of the summer from the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Working at their own schools over the summer, they use these parts and new parts of their own design to build biological systems and operate them in living cells. In effect, they are ‘biohackers’ who are exploring and manipulating biological systems for scientific purposes.
Just as information technology spurred a generation into action in the latter part of the 20th century, so too will biotechnology play an increasingly important role in the 21st. Given the numbers of college students with access to the “Registry of Standard Biological Parts,” how long will it be before one of these students, perhaps a maladjusted drop out, begins to focus his activities on the less positive social aspects of biohacking?
Given the profitable and effective business practices utilized by transnational organized cyber crime gangs, how long will it be before they are willing to transfer their knowledge to their emerging colleagues: the bio-hackers? What forms of biological crime might be possible in the coming years. For example, knowing that a particular individual has a particular genetic defect could certainly aid in targeting him or her for a homicide, were this information known and readily available.
What concerns, if any, should society have about these possibilities? Not only can the human genome be manipulated for criminal purposes, but as information technology is increasingly inserted into human biological organisms, a whole other subset of bio-hacking has been enabled, as mentioned elsewhere on Future Crimes. Perhaps now is the time for a legal, technological, security and public policy debate about these issues before the next generation technological threat is upon us.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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