from the world's big
Infinity is Not Real
In our material, measurable world, infinity is never a real, physical quantity; it is only an abstraction.
This post originally appeared on the RealClearScience Newton blog. Read the original here.
Infinity is an invaluable abstract concept in mathematics, physics, and philosophy. Isaac Newton used the abstraction of infinitely small times and distances to formulate the calculus upon which all modern physics and much of mathematics relies. But, can we see infinity in the world around us? According to some, the answer is yes. I beg to differ.
The question centers on whether Infinity (∞) is a quantity, or amount. Amounts are sizes and distances and tallies -- and they are represented by numbers. Numbers only have importance relative to other numbers. Infinity, however, ruins all number comparisons.
Mathematically, number amounts are compared by division and addition:
6/2=3 and 6+2=8
3/2=1.5 and 3+2=5
2/2=1 and 2+2=4
All numbers have relative value compared to any other number (in this case the number two). How about comparing infinity?
Compared to infinity, every other number is nothing. Infinity should not exist in the world we see because it would rewrite the rules for numbers: we would have infinity, and every other number would be nothing (0) by comparison.
Can we measure infinity in our universe? Does it exist in the same way that death and taxes and sunsets exist, and what are some possible real incarnations of infinity?
Think about this: The time from when dinosaurs walked the earth to now feels like an eternity to our imagination, but it pales compared to infinity. The amount of time from this very moment until the sun burns out over our extinct civilization, until all the stars in the universe slowly disintegrate, until nothing large enough to see by eye is left in the universe... is all the blink of an eye compared to the vastness of infinity.
Is the universe infinitely large? We have no evidence that it is. As far as you could ever travel in the universe, you will have always traveled a certain number of miles (and you could never reach the edge anyway). Your spaceship's odometer would always show a finite number. No place is infinitely far from another place, just very, very, very far.
Does infinity exist in more common human endeavors?
In chess, losing your king means you lose the game. Does this make the king infinitely valuable relative to every other piece? No! If the king truly had infinite value, all positions featuring the living king would be equally good. (Remember, infinity plus any number is just infinity). The infinitely valuable king would make all of the pieces, in every possible position on the board, equal -- i.e., equally worthless.
Considering the king to be worth twice, or ten times, or one-hundred times the value of other pieces may work well. But numbers like two, ten, 100, and 1000 are nowhere close to infinity.
Some people say death is infinite. It is not. Death is a finite length of time. As long as you may be dead, it will have been some number of years. Lucy, an early evolutionary ancestor of ours, has been dead for 3.2 million years. But this large number is nothing compared to infinity.
By trying to describe the universe as we observe it, physics does not allow us to experience infinity. String theory may talk about infinity. (Anyway, String Theory is irrelevant: right now string theory is as real as magic or paranormal hauntings.) In physics or engineering, infinity is the numerical answer that the machinery of theory spits out when something is impossible, irrelevant, or broken. An event that takes infinitely long to occur simply never happens. Something at an infinite distance is simply not there. Infinitely small means 0.
A more interesting question, perhaps, would be: "Is God infinite?" In this discussion, the abstraction of infinity might have real relevance. It would be useful and philosophically fascinating to consider.
In our material, measurable world, though, infinity is never a real, physical quantity; it is only an abstraction. A mathematician can tell you about an infinite set of numbers, but as much as he wishes, he can't find you a cup of coffee with infinite joe. That "bottomless" cup of coffee eventually runs dry.
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Vaccines find more success in development than any other kind of drug, but have been relatively neglected in recent decades.
Vaccines are more likely to get through clinical trials than any other type of drug — but have been given relatively little pharmaceutical industry support during the last two decades, according to a new study by MIT scholars.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.