Accidental innovation and cancer research
Through a process of serendipitous innovation, a team of biomedical researchers at the University of Rochester
Medical Center in New York may have discovered a new
way to attack cancerous tumor growths
. It turns out that what researchers originally thought was a "lab disaster" may actually be a new compound that breaks down the cell walls of tumors. The researchers will test the new compound for safety in the hope of developing it to treat cancers such as colon cancer,
esophageal cancer, liver and skin cancers. It all started when the researchers decided to use cancer cells instead of normal human cells:
Normal human cells are difficult to grow and study in the
lab, because they tend to die. But cancer cells live much
longer and are harder to kill, so scientists often use them. [Katherine] Schaefer was looking for drugs to treat the inflammation
seen in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, both of which
cause pain and diarrhea.
She was testing a compound called a PPAR-gamma modulator.
It would never normally have been thought of as a cancer drug,
or in fact a drug of any kind. "I made a calculation error and used a lot more than I
should have. And my cells died," Schaefer said. A colleague overheard her complaining. "The co-author on my
paper said,' Did I hear you say you killed some cancer?' I said
'Oh', and took a closer look." They ran several tests and found the compound killed
"pretty much every epithelial tumor cell lines we have seen,"
Schaefer said. Epithelial cells line organs such as the colon,
and also make up skin. It also killed colon tumors in mice without making the mice
sick, they reported in the journal International Cancer
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For Damien Echols, tattoos are part of his existential armor.
- In prison Damien Echols was known by his number SK931, not his name, and had his hair sheared off. Stripped of his identity, the only thing he had left was his skin.
- This is why he began tattooing things that are meaningful to him — to carry a "suit of armor" made up the images of the people and things that have significance to him, from his friends to talismans.
- Echols believes that all places are imbued with divinity: "If you interact with New York City as if there's an intelligence behind... then it will behave towards you the same way.".
She met mere mortals with and without the Vatican's approval.
- For centuries, the Virgin Mary has appeared to the faithful, requesting devotion and promising comfort.
- These maps show the geography of Marian apparitions – the handful approved by the Vatican, and many others.
- Historically, Europe is where most apparitions have been reported, but the U.S. is pretty fertile ground too.
Even some teachers suffer from anxiety about math.
I teach people how to teach math, and I've been working in this field for 30 years. Across those decades, I've met many people who suffer from varying degrees of math trauma – a form of debilitating mental shutdown when it comes to doing mathematics.
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