Searching for Liquid Water on Mars and Earth—Using the Same Equipment (Part 1 of 2)
Michio Kaku is a futurist, popularizer of science, and theoretical physicist, as well as a bestselling author and the host of two radio programs. He is the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory), and continues Einstein’s search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory. He holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics and a joint appointment at City College of New York and the Graduate Center of C.U.N.Y. He is also a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.
Kaku launched his Big Think blog, "Dr. Kaku's Universe," in March 2010.
According to a new study by scientists at the Astromaterials Research Science Directorate at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, “Mud volcanoes themselves are an indicator of a fluid-rich subsurface, and they bring up material from relatively deep parts of the subsurface that we might not have a chance to see otherwise." The scientists used photography equipment from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to examine the structure of some of these mounds and their flow-like features. They are convinced that there is a possibility that the mounds were caused by other processes (see last image). They believe that these features “occur elsewhere in the northern plains of Mars, were good places to search for signs of life.” As you may or may not know, one of the main goals of the two Mars Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity) was to determine whether life ever arose on Mars. As the NASA Web site states: “From the tiniest bacterium to the largest tree, all life as we know it requires water. Though we don’t yet know if life ever existed on Mars, within weeks of arriving, NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered that the plains of the Meridian surface were once a water-soaked place.”
Liquid Water—Can We Find It on Mars?
Detectives sometimes say “Follow the money when you want to crack a case.” Scientists, by contrast, say “Follow the water.” Water is plentiful throughout the Universe, mainly in the form of ice—but liquid water is both rare and precious. In our solar system for example, liquid water is only found in large quantities here on Earth and perhaps on a moon of Jupiter, under its ice cover.
You may have heard the saying liquid water is “The Universal Solvent”. It is in some sense the amniotic fluid of life, it can dissolve most minerals and chemicals besides certain oils and non-soluble compounds and it also serves as the mixing bowl for organic chemistry. Carbon has four bonds and because of that we can create chains of carbon atoms, sometimes called hydro-carbons, out of which you can form amino acids and proteins. So, in other words, where we find liquid water we have the tantalizing possibility of finding, eventually, DNA.
Looking at photographs of its geological structure, we know that Mars once had flowing water. We see remnants of evidence of an ocean bed perhaps the size of the United States. We see river beds, especially river beds (image below) that have emanated from craters. We also know that there is water on Mars however in the form of ice at the poles and also in the permafrost underneath the Martian surface.
Well, if Mars once had these great oceans and lakes and streams, what happened to them and where did they go? Mars is a small planet, it has small gravity and it cannot cling onto an atmosphere, so eventually atmospheric pressure began to drop on the surface until it hit the boiling point of water. Liquid water on the surface of Mars will boil all by itself because the atmospheric pressure there is only 1% that of Earth. In fact, in outer space; a glass of water will boil all by itself. If a human, for example, were to walk on the surface of Mars without the aid of a spacesuit or specialized equipment, first the blood within the body would begin to boil, pressure would build out at about 15 lbs per square inch and sadly the person would explode in all directions and the blood would crystallize into ice crystals. If you remember, we saw similar scenes in the movie "Total Recall" and also "Mission to Mars."
Some scientists think these domed features (above) on Mars are mud volcanoes, and could provide windows into Mars' astrobiological past. Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.
To be continued...
A study on flies may hold the key to future addiction treatments.
- A new study suggests that drinking alcohol can affect how memories are stored away as good or bad.
- This may have drastic implications for how addiction is caused and how people recall intoxication.
- The findings may one day lead to a new form of treatment for those suffering from addiction.
Progressive America would be half as big, but twice as populated as its conservative twin.
- America's two political tribes have consolidated into 'red' and 'blue' nations, with seemingly irreconcilable differences.
- Perhaps the best way to stop the infighting is to go for a divorce and give the two nations a country each
- Based on the UN's partition plan for Israel/Palestine, this proposal provides territorial contiguity and sea access to both 'red' and 'blue' America
As the world gets hotter, men may have fewer and fewer viable sperm
- New research on beetles shows that successive exposure to heatwaves reduces male fertility, sometimes to the point of sterility.
- The research has implications both for how the insect population will sustain itself as well as how human fertility may work on an increasingly hotter Earth.
- With this and other evidence, it is becoming clear that more common and more extreme heatwaves may be the most dangerous aspect of climate change.
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