Sex in China
China takes in 30% of the worldwide pornography revenue, and prostitution income makes up 8% of its massive GDP.
For anyone interested in sex and economics, China is fascinating. It takes in 30% of the worldwide pornography revenue,* and prostitution income makes up 8% of its massive GDP**. I’ve just spent two (wonderful) months in China, and while sex and economics had nothing to do with my trip, I was left with one surprising observation: I wondered if the Chinese really ought to have more sex.
In the night clubs in China it seems that for every ten men there is roughly one, extremely popular, woman. Social norms prevent otherwise willing women from going to bars, leaving the gender ratio there extremely skewed toward men. This reminded me of Steven Landsburg’s controversial economic theory More Sex is Safe Sex.*** According to Landsburg, if in a sex scene you have only one willing woman per every 10 men, and, if one person in that market contracts an STI, well guess what… everyone else is going to get it too because they are all having sex with the same women. Increase the number of women having sex, though, and, according to the theory, the risk of contracting an STI decreases because each woman is having sex with fewer men. Follow through on this logic and it seems that in more promiscuous societies, sex should be a less risky business: more sex is safe sex.
So is there some policy advice for China here? Can changing the social norms that prevent women from going to bars reduce STI rates? I think not. There is one fatal flaw in the more-sex-is-safe-sex theory: despite its name, the theory doesn’t assume more sex at all. In fact, it only assumes more participants on the scene holding the total number of ‘transactions’ constant. Only a fool would believe that increasing the number of willing partners wouldn’t increase the total amount of sex.
More sex is not necessarily safe sex, it is just more sex.
There is one active market that made me think that China does not, in fact, need more sex. In North America, we all know where convenience stores display the gum and chocolate bars; in the most tempting spot by the check-out. In China forget about being tempted by a pack of Juicy Fruit, that space is used to display a wide variety of condoms, lotions and powders all explicitly labeled with illustrated instructions.
Like I said, fascinating.
**The Industrial Vagina: The political economy of the global sex trade by Sheila Jeffreys (2009)
***More Sex is Safer Sex: The Unconventional Wisdom of Economics by Steven E. Landsburg (2007)
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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