Being married linked to better cognitive function, researchers say

Research points to many social-cognitive, emotional, behavioral and biological benefits that marriage seems to bestow on its participants.

Just married! Photo: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images
Photo: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

Scientists have long observed that there are many potential benefits of married life. One of their most popular findings perhaps pertains to the longevity advantage married people, and particularly men, have over their never married, divorced or widowed peers.

Studies point to many social-cognitive, emotional, behavioral and biological benefits that marriage seems to bestow on its participants. For example, being married is related to improved cancer survival. Being married has also been linked to better cognitive function, a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease, improved blood sugar levels, and better outcomes for hospitalized patients.

Now a new meta-analysis led by psychiatrist Andrew Sommerlad from University College London and published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, has found that single people were 42 percent more likely overall to develop dementia than married individuals. The risk for widowed people was 20 percent higher while, interestingly, researchers found no evidence for an increased risk of dementia in divorced people.

Dementia is a rising global public health problem. There were an estimated 50 million people with dementia in 2017 and according to the World Alzheimer Report, this number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050.

By studying the relationship between dementia and marital status, the scientists are hoping to find modifiable risk factors that could decrease individuals' likelihood of developing the disease. In their analysis the researchers conducted a systematic review of the literature including studies with a total of 812, 047 participants.

One factor that married life provides, and that seems to alleviate the risk for dementia, is increased social interactions. Social interactions could improve the individuals' cognitive reserves and enable them to better deal with neuropathological damage via compensatory mechanisms. More frequent social contact is also associated with reduced harmful lifestyle behaviors.

Having a marital partner seems to also influence people to make better lifestyle choices. The reverse is true for unmarried people who are more prone to adverse health behaviors and poorer health outcomes.

Laura Phipps from Alzheimer's Research U.K. points out another aspect of marriage that may be relevant:

"People who are married tend to be financially better off, a factor that is closely interwoven with many aspects of our health. Spouses may help to encourage healthy habits, look out for their partner's health and provide important social support."

Social norms may also contribute to the statistics. The scientists hypothesize that developing dementia could be related to underlying cognitive or personality traits that may have prevented people with smaller lifelong cognitive reserve to get married. As unmarried life becomes more common in modern cultures, single people born in the latter half of the 20th century have fewer unusual cognitive and personality characteristics leading to a tendency for reduction in the risk of dementia in single people in more recent times.

As with this and other observational studies, it is difficult to say which aspects of married life lead to its associated health benefits and whether these aspects can be replicated in other types of close relationships like those with friends or family.

Loneliness has been shown to be a health risk in itself, but while people living with unmarried partners tend to fare better than those living alone, living with a spouse seems to give you the best health of all.

A landslide is imminent and so is its tsunami

An open letter predicts that a massive wall of rock is about to plunge into Barry Arm Fjord in Alaska.

Image source: Christian Zimmerman/USGS/Big Think
Surprising Science
  • A remote area visited by tourists and cruises, and home to fishing villages, is about to be visited by a devastating tsunami.
  • A wall of rock exposed by a receding glacier is about crash into the waters below.
  • Glaciers hold such areas together — and when they're gone, bad stuff can be left behind.

The Barry Glacier gives its name to Alaska's Barry Arm Fjord, and a new open letter forecasts trouble ahead.

Thanks to global warming, the glacier has been retreating, so far removing two-thirds of its support for a steep mile-long slope, or scarp, containing perhaps 500 million cubic meters of material. (Think the Hoover Dam times several hundred.) The slope has been moving slowly since 1957, but scientists say it's become an avalanche waiting to happen, maybe within the next year, and likely within 20. When it does come crashing down into the fjord, it could set in motion a frightening tsunami overwhelming the fjord's normally peaceful waters .

"It could happen anytime, but the risk just goes way up as this glacier recedes," says hydrologist Anna Liljedahl of Woods Hole, one of the signatories to the letter.

The Barry Arm Fjord

Camping on the fjord's Black Sand Beach

Image source: Matt Zimmerman

The Barry Arm Fjord is a stretch of water between the Harriman Fjord and the Port Wills Fjord, located at the northwest corner of the well-known Prince William Sound. It's a beautiful area, home to a few hundred people supporting the local fishing industry, and it's also a popular destination for tourists — its Black Sand Beach is one of Alaska's most scenic — and cruise ships.

Not Alaska’s first watery rodeo, but likely the biggest

Image source: whrc.org

There have been at least two similar events in the state's recent history, though not on such a massive scale. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake nearby caused 40 million cubic yards of rock to suddenly slide 2,000 feet down into Lituya Bay, producing a tsunami whose peak waves reportedly reached 1,720 feet in height. By the time the wall of water reached the mouth of the bay, it was still 75 feet high. At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. Both of these events thankfully occurred in sparsely populated areas, so few fatalities occurred.

The Barry Arm event will be larger than either of these by far.

"This is an enormous slope — the mass that could fail weighs over a billion tonnes," said geologist Dave Petley, speaking to Earther. "The internal structure of that rock mass, which will determine whether it collapses, is very complex. At the moment we don't know enough about it to be able to forecast its future behavior."

Outside of Alaska, on the west coast of Greenland, a landslide-produced tsunami towered 300 feet high, obliterating a fishing village in its path.

What the letter predicts for Barry Arm Fjord

Moving slowly at first...

Image source: whrc.org

"The effects would be especially severe near where the landslide enters the water at the head of Barry Arm. Additionally, areas of shallow water, or low-lying land near the shore, would be in danger even further from the source. A minor failure may not produce significant impacts beyond the inner parts of the fiord, while a complete failure could be destructive throughout Barry Arm, Harriman Fiord, and parts of Port Wells. Our initial results show complex impacts further from the landslide than Barry Arm, with over 30 foot waves in some distant bays, including Whittier."

The discovery of the impeding landslide began with an observation by the sister of geologist Hig Higman of Ground Truth, an organization in Seldovia, Alaska. Artist Valisa Higman was vacationing in the area and sent her brother some photos of worrying fractures she noticed in the slope, taken while she was on a boat cruising the fjord.

Higman confirmed his sister's hunch via available satellite imagery and, digging deeper, found that between 2009 and 2015 the slope had moved 600 feet downhill, leaving a prominent scar.

Ohio State's Chunli Dai unearthed a connection between the movement and the receding of the Barry Glacier. Comparison of the Barry Arm slope with other similar areas, combined with computer modeling of the possible resulting tsunamis, led to the publication of the group's letter.

While the full group of signatories from 14 organizations and institutions has only been working on the situation for a month, the implications were immediately clear. The signers include experts from Ohio State University, the University of Southern California, and the Anchorage and Fairbanks campuses of the University of Alaska.

Once informed of the open letter's contents, the Alaska's Department of Natural Resources immediately released a warning that "an increasingly likely landslide could generate a wave with devastating effects on fishermen and recreationalists."

How do you prepare for something like this?

Image source: whrc.org

The obvious question is what can be done to prepare for the landslide and tsunami? For one thing, there's more to understand about the upcoming event, and the researchers lay out their plan in the letter:

"To inform and refine hazard mitigation efforts, we would like to pursue several lines of investigation: Detect changes in the slope that might forewarn of a landslide, better understand what could trigger a landslide, and refine tsunami model projections. By mapping the landslide and nearby terrain, both above and below sea level, we can more accurately determine the basic physical dimensions of the landslide. This can be paired with GPS and seismic measurements made over time to see how the slope responds to changes in the glacier and to events like rainstorms and earthquakes. Field and satellite data can support near-real time hazard monitoring, while computer models of landslide and tsunami scenarios can help identify specific places that are most at risk."

In the letter, the authors reached out to those living in and visiting the area, asking, "What specific questions are most important to you?" and "What could be done to reduce the danger to people who want to visit or work in Barry Arm?" They also invited locals to let them know about any changes, including even small rock-falls and landslides.

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