Dennis Kozlowski Revisited

Catherine Neal:  Dennis Kozlowski is the former CEO of Tyco International.  Tyco International began as a small New Hampshire company.  It's a conglomerate of hundreds of companies.  And Kozlowski was very successful as a CEO.  He grew the company significantly over the decades that he was the CEO.  And by the time he ended his career there in 2002, the company had 250,000 employees worldwide in more than 100 countries and annual revenue of $40 billion.

So it was a huge global multinational corporation.  Kozlowski's career didn't end the way that you might expect for someone who had such great success.  In 2002 he was indicted for sales tax evasion charges by the Manhattan district attorney for some artwork that was shipped into the city.

So he was fired.  Well, immediately after he was fired the Tyco board decided to do an internal investigation and they hired a high profile attorney named David Boyce to complete that investigation of the compensation and spending of Tyco executives.  And even though Kozlowski was gone his actions were part of the investigation.  When David Boyce and his team completed this internal investigation they found that Kozlowski had received compensation from the company that was not authorized.  And that led to the indictment later in 2002 of Kozlowski and CFO Mark Schwartz and Tyco's general counsel at the time, a man named Mark Belnick.  And the three of them were indicted for malfeasance at the head of Tyco.

Kozlowski was compensated generously by the Tyco Board of Directors over the years he was CEO.  He was making, and in some years more than $100 million a year, so quite a large salary, one of the largest salaries among CEOs at that time.  He was known for a pretty lavish lifestyle, large homes and many places in the country.  He threw a huge birthday party for his wife at the time, a $2 million birthday party on the Italian island of Sardinia, which made the news and there was video of this very garish Roman orgy themed birthday party.  He flew Jimmy Buffett over to play at the party; it cost a quarter million dollars.  And it's true that Dennis Kozlowski did approve the purchase of a $6,000 shower curtain, not specifically that, he did not hand pick it; he didn't even know it existed until he went to trial.  What happened is he hired a decorator who decorated an apartment and part of her choices was the $6,000 shower curtain, which to this day he has never seen and never used and would never have purchased himself he said.

Kozlowski was convicted of state criminal charges in a state court and sent to a state prison, a hard-core New York state prison, not a Club Fed like so many other, you know, white-collar criminals.  Almost all, maybe even all of the other corporate scandals, if you look at them everyone who was prosecuted was prosecuted by federal prosecutors, not state, and they go to federal prisons, which you sometimes hear called Club Fed.  They're nicer prison than state prisons.  I think a lot of people believe that he had a, you know, a luxurious eight years in a country club with tennis courts, but that's simply not the case.  The prison is scary and even just going in as a visitor is daunting.  He just wrapped up his eight and a third years, which is 100 months of imprisonment.  The battle he's going to have is overcoming this image that has been created of him as this really bad guy, you know, this thief, pig, you know, criminal who stole $100 million from the company that he ran.  That's tough to overcome.  So that's what lies ahead for him for the immediate future certainly.

Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

 

Dennis Kozlowski, the founder and former CEO of Tyco, is often seen as a poster child for an era wrought with greed and corporate corruption. Catherine Neal challenges this one-dimensional view of the man.

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Politics & Current Affairs

Political division is nothing new. Throughout American history there have been numerous flare ups in which the political arena was more than just tense but incideniary. In a letter addressed to William Hamilton in 1800, Thomas Jefferson once lamented about how an emotional fervor had swept over the populace in regards to a certain political issue at the time. It disturbed him greatly to see how these political issues seemed to seep into every area of life and even affect people's interpersonal relationships. At one point in the letter he states:

"I never considered a difference of opinion in politics, in religion, in philosophy, as cause for withdrawing from a friend."

Today, we Americans find ourselves in a similar situation, with our political environment even more splintered due to a number of factors. The advent of mass digital media, siloed identity-driven political groups, and a societal lack of understanding of basic discursive fundamentals all contribute to the problem.

Civil discourse has fallen to an all time low.

The question that the American populace needs to ask itself now is: how do we fix it?


Discursive fundamentals need to be taught to preserve free expression

In a 2017 Free Speech and Tolerance Survey by Cato, it was found that 71% of Americans believe that political correctness had silenced important discussions necessary to our society. Many have pointed to draconian university policies regarding political correctness as a contributing factor to this phenomenon.

It's a great irony that, colleges, once true bastions of free-speech, counterculture and progressiveness, have now devolved into reactionary tribal politics.

Many years ago, one could count on the fact that universities would be the first places where you could espouse and debate any controversial idea without consequence. The decline of staple subjects that deal with the wisdom of the ancients, historical reference points, and civic discourse could be to blame for this exaggerated partisanship boiling on campuses.

Young people seeking an education are given a disservice when fed biased ideology, even if such ideology is presented with the best of intentions. Politics are but one small sliver for society and the human condition at large. Universities would do well to instead teach the principles of healthy discourse and engagement across the ideological spectrum.

The fundamentals of logic, debate and the rich artistic heritage of western civilization need to be the central focus of an education. They help to create a well-rounded citizen that can deal with controversial political issues.

It has been found that in the abstract, college students generally support and endorse the first amendment, but there's a catch when it comes to actually practicing it. This was explored in a Gallup survey titled: Free Expression on Campus: What college students think about First amendment issues.

In their findings the authors state:

"The vast majority say free speech is important to democracy and favor an open learning environment that promotes the airing of a wide variety of ideas. However, the actions of some students in recent years — from milder actions such as claiming to be threatened by messages written in chalk promoting Trump's candidacy to the most extreme acts of engaging in violence
to stop attempted speeches — raise issues of just how committed college students are to
upholding First Amendment ideals.


Most college students do not condone more aggressive actions to squelch speech, like
violence and shouting down speakers, although there are some who do. However, students
do support many policies or actions that place limits on speech, including free speech zones,
speech codes and campus prohibitions on hate speech, suggesting that their commitment
to free speech has limits. As one example, barely a majority think handing out literature on
controversial issues is "always acceptable."

With this in mind, the problems seen on college campuses are also being seen on a whole through other pockets of society and regular everyday civic discourse. Look no further than the dreaded and cliche prospect of political discussion at Thanksgiving dinner.

Talking politics at Thanksgiving dinner

As a result of this increased tribalization of views, it's becoming increasingly more difficult to engage in polite conversation with people possessing opposing viewpoints. The authors of a recent Hidden Tribes study broke down the political "tribes" in which many find themselves in:

  • Progressive Activists: younger, highly engaged, secular, cosmopolitan, angry.
  • Traditional Liberals: older, retired, open to compromise, rational, cautious.
  • Passive Liberals: unhappy, insecure, distrustful, disillusioned.
  • Politically Disengaged: young, low income, distrustful, detached, patriotic, conspiratorial
  • Moderates: engaged, civic-minded, middle-of-the-road, pessimistic, Protestant.
  • Traditional Conservatives: religious, middle class, patriotic, moralistic.
  • Devoted Conservatives: white, retired, highly engaged, uncompromising,
    Patriotic.

Understanding these different viewpoints and the hidden tribes we may belong to will be essential in having conversations with those we disagree with. This might just come to a head when it's Thanksgiving and you have a mix of many different personalities, ages, and viewpoints.

It's interesting to note the authors found that:

"Tribe membership shows strong reliability in predicting views across different political topics."

You'll find that depending on what group you identify with, that nearly 100 percent of the time you'll believe in the same way the rest of your group constituents do.

Here are some statistics on differing viewpoints according to political party:

  • 51% of staunch liberals say it's "morally acceptable" to punch Nazis.
  • 53% of Republicans favor stripping U.S. citizenship from people who burn the American flag.
  • 51% of Democrats support a law that requires Americans use transgender people's preferred gender pronouns.
  • 65% of Republicans say NFL players should be fired if they refuse to stand for the anthem.
  • 58% of Democrats say employers should punish employees for offensive Facebook posts.
  • 47% of Republicans favor bans on building new mosques.

Understanding the fact that tribal membership indicates what you believe, can help you return to the fundamentals for proper political engagement

Here are some guidelines for civic discourse that might come in handy:

  • Avoid logical fallacies. Essentially at the core, a logical fallacy is anything that detracts from the debate and seeks to attack the person rather than the idea and stray from the topic at hand.
  • Practice inclusion and listen to who you're speaking to.
  • Have the idea that there is nothing out of bounds for inquiry or conversation once you get down to an even stronger or new perspective of whatever you were discussing.
  • Keep in mind the maxim of : Do not listen with the intent to reply. But with the intent to understand.
  • We're not trying to proselytize nor shout others down with our rhetoric, but come to understand one another again.
  • If we're tied too closely to some in-group we no longer become an individual but a clone of someone else's ideology.

Civic discourse in the divisive age

Debate and civic discourse is inherently messy. Add into the mix an ignorance of history, rabid politicization and debased political discourse, you can see that it will be very difficult in mending this discursive staple of a functional civilization.

There is still hope that this great divide can be mended, because it has to be. The Hidden Tribes authors at one point state:

"In the era of social media and partisan news outlets, America's differences have become
dangerously tribal, fueled by a culture of outrage and taking offense. For the combatants,
the other side can no longer be tolerated, and no price is too high to defeat them.
These tensions are poisoning personal relationships, consuming our politics and
putting our democracy in peril.


Once a country has become tribalized, debates about contested issues from
immigration and trade to economic management, climate change and national security,
become shaped by larger tribal identities. Policy debate gives way to tribal conflicts.
Polarization and tribalism are self-reinforcing and will likely continue to accelerate.
The work of rebuilding our fragmented society needs to start now. It extends from
re-connecting people across the lines of division in local communities all the way to
building a renewed sense of national identity: a bigger story of us."

We need to start teaching people how to approach subjects from less of an emotional or baseless educational bias or identity, especially in the event that the subject matter could be construed to be controversial or uncomfortable.

This will be the beginning of a new era of understanding, inclusion and the defeat of regressive philosophies that threaten the core of our nation and civilization.