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Is ‘sexy’ being redefined? If so, what does it mean for the fashion industry?
Some lingerie lines have failed to keep up with a new era.
- According to L Brands, the Victoria's Secret fashion show, which began in 1995, has been cancelled to shift its focus on digital marketing.
- Since the advent of the fashion, the female body has been dissected and commodified to promote new feminine ideals for sales. This might be ending.
- Feminist demands have given rise to body inclusive brands such as Aerie, ThirdLove, Universal Studios, and Savage X Fenty that redefine "sexy."
Met with a sigh of relief from feminist spheres of the internet, it was recently announced that the reign of Victoria's Secret fashion show has come to an end.
The show — famous for parading supermodels around in gemstone-encrusted panties, plaid push-up bras, stiletto heels, and giant feathery angel wings — has been canceled according to Victoria's Secret's parent company L Brands. And it might be the nail in the coffin to an archaic, androcentric definition of "sexy."
The Fall of Victoria’s Secret
Photo Credit: Getty Images
L Brands said that it wants to "evolve the marketing" of the Victoria's Secret brand, named after the Victorian-era in England.
The show began in 1995 as a marketing tour de force, with more than 12 million people tuning into the show in 1995. But the viewership has plummeted over the past five years, with only 3.3 million viewers in 2018 — half the viewers of 2016 — and its worst broadcast ratings ever. The decline in viewers has reflected the recent failure of company sales. Although Victoria's Secret is still America's leading lingerie brand, between 2016 and 2018 its market share dropped from 33 percent to 24 percent in the U.S., and the retailer's sales dropped 7 percent during the latest quarter compared to the same period last year.
CEO Les Wexner said that the company no longer thought network television was the right fit, and that it would shift its focus on digital marketing. But the shift in the viewer's preferred content platforms likely isn't the biggest reason for the shortfalls of the brand. Rather it's been its failure to keep up with social shifts that have, arguably, changed the essence of what Victoria's Secret sells: sexy.
Over the last few years a feminist wave has disoriented old marketing tactics. The #MeToo movement shamed inappropriate voyeurism, and body positivity reforms have vocalized the idea that sexuality should be available to bodies outside of the restrictive parameters set by fashion institutions. Victoria's Secret has not aged well in this new era of activism.
There was a damning Vogue interview with the engineers of the lingerie brand, Ed Razek and Monica Mitro, during which Razek said that the brand would not include transgender models because, he implied, it would be in conflict with with the "fantasy" that Victoria's Secret sells, and that no one had any interest in plus-sized models. (Razek soon resigned.) Then there was the unveiling of Wexner's close ties with the deceased sex criminal Jeffery Epstein, who served as the CEO's personal financial advisor.
This was, to say the very least, a terrible look.
Taking Sexy Back
Photo image: Wikimedia Commons
Victoria's Secret has always been voyeuristic. Essentially, it's been a lingerie store created by men, selling products to women that cater to the appetites of straight males. It's pretty much packaged and sold the same look for the past 24 years: Ultra lean, long legged, tall, and conventionally beautiful. Any efforts to diversify the models have been limited.Feminist demands have given birth to body-positive brands such as Aerie, ThirdLove, and Universal Studios with sizes ranging from 00 to 40. But nothing has directly stepped forward to challenge Victoria's Secret in the way that Rihanna's brand Savage X Fenty has.The Savage X Fenty Show debuted in New York City the September of 2018 and enjoyed rave reviews. An Anti-Victoria's Secret, it presented an unruly, dark, and assertive feminine sexuality — with a clear point of view dedicated to inclusivity. During the show pregnant, trans, disabled, and fat models swaggered down the runway in skimpy lingerie alongside mainstream supermodels. Rihanna toldThe New York Times that the concept was about mixing the conventional with what she hopes is the future of fashion. That is, women being celebrated in all their forms.
Commodifying of Female Bodies Is Out
From its beginning, Victoria's Secret has bet on the age-old marketing tactic of selling women a "perfect body." Since the advent of the fashion industry, the female body has been dissected and commodified to promote new feminine ideals for sales. In the 1910s that ideal was a tiny waist and thick thighs, in the '20s it was being rail thin with a flat chest and butt. In the '30s and '40s it was an hour-glass figure with military shoulders. In the '30s through the '50s weight-gain supplements were pushed because voluptuous curves with big breasts were desirable. Thin was back in during the '60s and '70s, and waists were to be narrow and boyish.
Long legs and a muscular physiques epitomized the '80s market trends paralleling the fitness frenzy, while the sickly boney appearance dubbed "heroin chic" trended in the '90s. It was the 2000s when the lean, toned Victoria's Secret look dominated runways. More recently, starting in the early 2010s, women have been told to strive for everything from thigh gaps to "Toblerone tunnels" to an internet-breaking booty.
Perhaps we're finally seeing a dismissal of the absurdity of a group of (probably male) somebodies, somewhere, deciding what body shapes are sexy decade to decade. Victoria's Secret and its plummeting financial standing is indicative of a changing tide in what "sexy," as it pertains to female bodies, is. Rather than showcase bodies that are tailored to designers' construction of the male gaze, Rihanna's brand, along with others, celebrates feminine sexiness as a somatic way of being.
They may just be lingerie brands and fashion shows, but the euphoric responses to Savage X Fenty and other body inclusive brands, as opposed to Victoria's Secret's cancelled show, tells us something is happening. What is sexy becoming, then? Rather than a commodified body-type that women are told to strive for, it's a reveling that feminine sexuality is without limits — it's available to anybody and every body.
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
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A new study suggests that a century-old vaccine may reduce the severity of coronavirus cases.
- A new study finds a country's tuberculosis BCG vaccination is linked to its COVID-19 mortality rate.
- More BCG vaccinations is connected to fewer severe coronavirus cases.
- The study is preliminary and more research is needed to support the findings.
Professor Luis Escobar.
Credit: Virginia Tech
A study of the manner in which memory works turns up a surprising thing.
- Researchers have found that some basic words appear to be more memorable than others.
- Some faces are also easier to commit to memory.
- Scientists suggest that these words serve as semantic bridges when the brain is searching for a memory.
Cognitive psychologist Weizhen Xie (Zane) of the NIH's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) works with people who have intractable epilepsy, a form of the disorder that can't be controlled with medications. During research into the brain activity of patients, he and his colleagues discovered something odd about human memory: It appears that certain basic words are consistently more memorable than other basic words.
The research is published in Nature Human Behaviour.
An odd find
Image source: Tsekhmister/Shutterstock
Xie's team was re-analyzing memory tests of 30 epilepsy patients undertaken by Kareem Zaghloul of NINDS.
"Our goal is to find and eliminate the source of these harmful and debilitating seizures," Zaghloul said. "The monitoring period also provides a rare opportunity to record the neural activity that controls other parts of our lives. With the help of these patient volunteers we have been able to uncover some of the blueprints behind our memories."
Specifically, the participants were shown word pairs, such as "hand" and "apple." To better understand how the brain might remember such pairings, after a brief interval, participants were supplied one of the two words and asked to recall the other. Of the 300 words used in the tests, five of them proved to be five times more likely to be recalled: pig, tank, doll, pond, and door.
The scientists were perplexed that these words were so much more memorable than words like "cat," "street," "stair," "couch," and "cloud."
Intrigued, the researchers looked at a second data source from a word test taken by 2,623 healthy individuals via Amazon's Mechanical Turk and found essentially the same thing.
"We saw that some things — in this case, words — may be inherently easier for our brains to recall than others," Zaghloul said. That the Mechanical Turk results were so similar may "provide the strongest evidence to date that what we discovered about how the brain controls memory in this set of patients may also be true for people outside of the study."
Why understanding memory matters
Image source: Orawan Pattarawimonchai/Shutterstock
"Our memories play a fundamental role in who we are and how our brains work," Xie said. "However, one of the biggest challenges of studying memory is that people often remember the same things in different ways, making it difficult for researchers to compare people's performances on memory tests." He added that the search for some kind of unified theory of memory has been going on for over a century.
If a comprehensive understanding of the way memory works can be developed, the researchers say that "we can predict what people should remember in advance and understand how our brains do this, then we might be able to develop better ways to evaluate someone's overall brain health."
Image source: joob_in/Shutterstock
Xie's interest in this was piqued during a conversation with Wilma Bainbridge of University of Chicago at a Christmas party a couple of years ago. Bainbridge was, at the time, wrapping up a study of 1,000 volunteers that suggested certain faces are universally more memorable than others.
Bainbridge recalls, "Our exciting finding is that there are some images of people or places that are inherently memorable for all people, even though we have each seen different things in our lives. And if image memorability is so powerful, this means we can know in advance what people are likely to remember or forget."
Image source: Anatomography/Wikimedia
At first, the scientists suspected that the memorable words and faces were simply recalled more frequently and were thus easier to recall. They envisioned them as being akin to "highly trafficked spots connected to smaller spots representing the less memorable words." They developed a modeling program based on word frequencies found in books, new articles, and Wikipedia pages. Unfortunately, the model was unable to predict or duplicate the results they saw in their clinical experiments.
Eventually, the researchers came to suspect that the memorability of certain words was linked to the frequency with which the brain used them as semantic links between other memories, making them often-visited hubs in individuals's memory networks, and therefore places the brain jumped to early and often when retrieving memories. This idea was supported by observed activity in participants' anterior temporal lobe, a language center.
In epilepsy patients, these words were so frequently recalled that subjects often shouted them out even when they were incorrect responses to word-pair inquiries.
Modern search engines no longer simply look for raw words when resolving an inquiry: They also look for semantic — contextual and meaning — connections so that the results they present may better anticipate what it is you're looking for. Xie suggests something similar may be happening in the brain: "You know when you type words into a search engine, and it shows you a list of highly relevant guesses? It feels like the search engine is reading your mind. Well, our results suggest that the brains of the subjects in this study did something similar when they tried to recall a paired word, and we think that this may happen when we remember many of our past experiences."
He also notes that it may one day be possible to leverage individuals' apparently wired-in knowledge of their language as a fixed point against which to assess the health of their memory and brain.