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Is emotional labor next to be outsourced and professionalized?
This story was originally published in Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons.
- Emotional labor is being held up as the one form of work that's safe from automation.
- This is undervalued and unrecognized — especially in women.
- Historically, these have been underpaid jobs in care industries.
Work is hard. But we don't always realize how hard it is or, indeed, that some forms of labor are work at all.
If you stand on your feet or stare at a screen all day, you can point to bodily strain. But if a task is something more mental, the difficulty is often invisible — which can make it hard to evaluate or celebrate those who perform such tasks.
Jobs defined by their cognitive contributions tend to gain attention when other forms of labor are perceived as threatened. Anxieties about being innovated out of a job or being replaced by machines tend to bring into focus those skills and states of mind that are irreducibly human. No job is physical or mental alone, of course. But cognition plays a special role in how work is valued. Take "emotional labor": historically underpaid jobs in care industries held mostly by women. Recognition of emotional labor has grown alongside fears of automation in other areas of the economy.
This is not the first time mental labor has gained new recognition in a changing employment landscape. A century ago, a similar transformation produced another new cognitive category. Concerns about the future of work led to a re-appraisal of the difficulty of existing jobs. Specifically, a growing perception that new technologies threatened manual labor on farms and in factories led some to look to more sedentary positions — in offices and at desks — as the way of the future for those displaced.
It was not all rosy, however. Some of the first to identify these changes in the workplace were physicians, who expressed growing alarm about the surprising physical and mental effects of this kind of cognitive labor. What seemed, to the outside, like a step up in the workforce was being decried as sneakily arduous, even dangerous.
Doctors called these jobs 'brain work', and argued that they taxed those who did them even more than manual trades. A desk job could be just as dangerous as one on the factory floor. In making their case, physicians gave 'brain workers' a way to legitimate their labor as arduous and, crucially, human. Their definition and defense of "brain work" paved the way for today's treatment of emotional labor as the path forward in an age of increasing automation.
The category of "brain work" was suited to the Gilded Age of the 1870s–1900s. As a new label for cognitive tasks, it wedded ongoing changes in the science and medicine of the mind to fears about technological developments that were impacting on the nature of work. Medicine and machinery, cognition and capitalism – this was the intersection at which important features of human nature and its relationship to productive labor were redefined.
In the late-19th century, the theory of "nervous energy" explained how the mind and brain interacted — for better and for worse. Too much nervous energy made you excitable, while too little left you drained. The American neurologist George Miller Beard popularized the idea of "neurasthenia" to explain what he saw as an American malady: the rapidity and constant stimulation of the modern world was leading to nervous exhaustion.
The cause, according to Beard and others, was the pace of technological change, which they saw as unprecedented — and dangerous. This was the context in which "brain work" first appeared. It helped both to explain how office workers were as exhausted as factory workers and to celebrate a form of labor that contemporaries felt was safe from becoming obsolete.
Medical accounts of nervous exhaustion and mechanical advances in the manufacturing sector conspired to put "brain work" on the map. Those who worked with their brains now had a story to tell about their burnout and a sense that the jobs that were causing it were safe — for now.
It's a strange sort of comfort, if you think about it. "Brain work" made us human, according to its proponents, but it was also killing us. Looking back, it seems like the mandate to safeguard human exceptionalism won out over addressing the health consequences of cognitive labor.
The same is true of emotional labor today. Advances in the science and medicine of mind-brain connections have taken an "affective turn," acknowledging both the positive and the negative dimensions of emotions in social life and personal wellbeing. Affective neuroscience is now central to how we understand identity and interaction. Ours is an affective age.
At the same time, new anxieties about technology's impact on labor have us searching for tasks that robots and artificial intelligence can't do.
These two transformations, the affective turn and artificial intelligence, have converged on "emotional labor." Psychiatrists and others are highlighting just how taxing, how hard, this kind of work can be. Whether it's in the care industries or at home, emotional labor has long been associated with women — which is a major reason why it has been overlooked for so long. Today, in the face of technological change, it's being held up as the one form of work that's safe from automation.
Emotional labor is to artificial intelligence as "brain work" was to the mechanization of factories: both are ways of using science and medicine to celebrate certain kinds of work. Cynically, one could point out that in both cases the recognition took hold only when manufacturing jobs were threatened and men sought validation for new lines of work. But if that means recognizing work that's long been undervalued, it might be okay.
The real risk is that companies might now try to outsource emotional labor rather than do it in-house — just like they did with "brain work." The rise of management consulting a century ago was one upshot of the advent of "brain work." What might the equivalent development be for emotional labor — and will it be an unalloyed good?
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Many of the most popular apps are about self-improvement.
Emotions are the newest hot commodity, and we can't get enough.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.