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People who see God as a white man tend to prefer white men for leadership positions
Participants were also more likely to see God as old than young, and male rather than female.
When you picture God, who do you see: a young black woman, or an old white man? Chances are it's the latter — and a new study in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology suggests that that image has its consequences.
Across a series of seven studies, at team led by Steven O Roberts at Stanford University found that the way that we perceive God — and in particular our beliefs about God's race — may influence our decisions about who should be in positions of leadership more generally.
First, the team examined how 444 American Christians — a mixture of men and women, some black and some white — pictured God. In their "indirect" measure, the researchers asked participants to view 12 pairs of faces that differed either in age (young vs old), race (white vs black), or gender (man vs woman), and pick the photo of each pair they thought looked more like God. Participants were also asked to explicitly rate God on each of these characteristics (e.g. whether they thought God was more likely white or black).
On both measures, participants were more likely to see God as old than young, and male rather than female. But participants' view of God's race depended on their own race: white participants tended to see God as white, while black participants tended to see God as black.
So people clearly conceptualise God in a specific way — but how does this relate to decisions they make in their everyday lives? For Christians, God is the ultimate leader, so perhaps they look for the characteristics they ascribe to God in other leaders too. So in a second study, the team asked more than 1,000 participants to complete the same direct and indirect measures as before, as well as a new task in which they imagined working for a company that was looking for a new supervisor. They saw 32 faces that varied in gender and race and had to rate how well each person would fit the position.
The team found that when participants saw God as white, they tended to give white candidates a higher rating compared to black candidates. The reverse was true too: participants who saw God as black tended to rate black candidates as more suited than white ones. People who saw God as male also rated males higher than females. A subsequent study found that even children aged 4 to 12 generally perceived God as male and white, and those who conceptualised God as white also viewed white people as more boss-like than black people.
The results suggest that the extent to which people see God as white and male predicts how much they will prefer white men for leadership roles. Interestingly, these effects held even after controlling for measures of participants' racial prejudice, sexism and political attitudes, suggesting that the effects couldn't simply be explained by these kinds of biases. Of course, when people saw God as black, these effects were reversed, with participants preferring black candidates. But the fact is that in America, the idea that God is white is a "deeply rooted intuition", the authors write, and so this conceptualisation could potentially reinforce existing hierarchies that disadvantage black people.
However, there's a big limitation here: these studies were all based on correlations between beliefs about God and beliefs about who should be leaders. That is, it wasn't clear whether perceptions of God's race actually cause people to prefer certain leaders or whether there's something else going on that could explain the link between the two.
To address this question of causality, the team turned to made-up scenarios, in which participants had to judge who made good rulers based on the characteristics of a deity. Participants read about a planet inhabited by different kinds of aliens — "Hibbles" or "Glerks" — who all worshipped a Creator. People tended to infer whether Hibbles or Glerks should rule over the planet depending on whether the Creator itself was Hibble or Glerk.
These final studies provide some evidence that the ways in which people picture God, or at least an abstract God-like being, do indeed filter down to actively influence beliefs and decisions in other areas of their lives. The authors suggest that future work should look at how to prevent people making these kinds of inferences.
Of course, the research focuses on a specific group: all participants lived in America, and in most studies they were Christian (some of the later studies also included atheists). It remains to be seen whether similar patterns exist amongst adherents of other religions, or in countries with different demographics. It would also be important to figure out whether perceptions of God influence decisions in the real world, and not just in the lab.
Still, as the authors write, the results "provide robust support for a profound conclusion: beliefs about who rules in heaven predict beliefs about who rules on earth."
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Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
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- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."