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Signs of Covid-19 may be hidden in speech signals
Studying voice recordings of infected but asymptomatic people reveals potential indicators of Covid-19.
Maybe their voices are lower or have a nasally tone. Infections change the quality of our voices in various ways. But MIT Lincoln Laboratory researchers are detecting these changes in Covid-19 patients even when these changes are too subtle for people to hear or even notice in themselves.
By processing speech recordings of people infected with Covid-19 but not yet showing symptoms, these researchers found evidence of vocal biomarkers, or measurable indicators, of the disease. These biomarkers stem from disruptions the infection causes in the movement of muscles across the respiratory, laryngeal, and articulatory systems. A technology letter describing this research was recently published in IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology.
While this research is still in its early stages, the initial findings lay a framework for studying these vocal changes in greater detail. This work may also hold promise for using mobile apps to screen people for the disease, particularly those who are asymptomatic.
"I had this 'aha' moment while I was watching the news," says Thomas Quatieri, a senior staff member in the laboratory's Human Health and Performance Systems Group. Quatieri has been leading the group's research in vocal biomarkers for the past decade; their focus has been on discovering vocal biomarkers of neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease. These diseases, and many others, change the brain's ability to turn thoughts into words, and those changes can be detected by processing speech signals.
He and his team wondered whether vocal biomarkers might also exist for Covid-19. The symptoms led them to think so. When symptoms manifest, a person typically has difficulty breathing. Inflammation in the respiratory system affects the intensity with which air is exhaled when a person talks. This air interacts with hundreds of other potentially inflamed muscles on its journey to speech production. These interactions impact the loudness, pitch, steadiness, and resonance of the voice — measurable qualities that form the basis of their biomarkers.
While watching the news, Quatieri realized there were speech samples in front of him of people who had tested positive for Covid-19. He and his colleagues combed YouTube for clips of celebrities or TV hosts who had given interviews while they were Covid-19 positive but asymptomatic. They identified five subjects. Then, they downloaded interviews of those people from before they had Covid-19, matching audio conditions as best they could.
They then used algorithms to extract features from the vocal signals in each audio sample. "These vocal features serve as proxies for the underlying movements of the speech production systems," says Tanya Talkar, a PhD candidate in the Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology program at Harvard University.
The signal's amplitude, or loudness, was extracted as a proxy for movement in the respiratory system. For studying movements in the larynx, they measured pitch and the steadiness of pitch, two indicators of how stable the vocal cords are. As a proxy for articulator movements — like those of the tongue, lips, jaw, and more — they extracted speech formants. Speech formants are frequency measurements that correspond to how the mouth shapes sound waves to create a sequence of phonemes (vowels and consonants) and to contribute to a certain vocal quality (nasally versus warm, for example).
They hypothesized that Covid-19 inflammation causes muscles across these systems to become overly coupled, resulting in a less complex movement. "Picture these speech subsystems as if they are the wrist and fingers of a skilled pianist; normally, the movements are independent and highly complex," Quatieri says. Now, picture if the wrist and finger movements were to become stuck together, moving as one. This coupling would force the pianist to play a much simpler tune.
The researchers looked for evidence of coupling in their features, measuring how each feature changed in relation to another in 10 millisecond increments as the subject spoke. These values were then plotted on an eigenspectrum; the shape of this eigenspectrum plot indicates the complexity of the signals. "If the eigenspace of the values forms a sphere, the signals are complex. If there is less complexity, it might look more like a flat oval," Talkar says.
In the end, they found a decreased complexity of movement in the Covid-19 interviews as compared to the pre-Covid-19 interviews. "The coupling was less prominent between larynx and articulator motion, but we're seeing a reduction in complexity between respiratory and larynx motion," Talkar says.
These preliminary results hint that biomarkers derived from vocal system coordination can indicate the presence of Covid-19. However, the researchers note that it's still early to draw conclusions, and more data are needed to validate their findings. They're working now with a publicly released dataset from Carnegie Mellon University that contains audio samples from individuals who have tested positive for Covid-19.
Beyond collecting more data to fuel this research, the team is looking at using mobile apps to implement it. A partnership is underway with Satra Ghosh at the MIT McGovern Institute for Brain Research to integrate vocal screening for Covid-19 into its VoiceUp app, which was initially developed to study the link between voice and depression. A follow-on effort could add this vocal screening into the How We Feel app. This app asks users questions about their daily health status and demographics, with the aim to use these data to pinpoint hotspots and predict the percentage of people who have the disease in different regions of the country. Asking users to also submit a daily voice memo to screen for biomarkers of Covid-19 could potentially help scientists catch on to an outbreak.
"A sensing system integrated into a mobile app could pick up on infections early, before people feel sick or, especially, for these subsets of people who don't ever feel sick or show symptoms," says Jeffrey Palmer, who leads the research group. "This is also something the U.S. Army is interested in as part of a holistic Covid-19 monitoring system." Even after a diagnosis, this sensing ability could help doctors remotely monitor their patients' progress or monitor the effects of a vaccine or drug treatment.
As the team continues their research, they plan to do more to address potential confounders that could cause inaccuracies in their results, such as different recording environments, the emotional status of the subjects, or other illnesses causing vocal changes. They're also supporting similar research. The Mass General Brigham Center for COVID Innovation has connected them to international scientists who are following the team's framework to analyze coughs.
"There are a lot of other interesting areas to look at. Here, we looked at the physiological impacts on the vocal tract. We're also looking to expand our biomarkers to consider neurophysiological impacts linked to Covid-19, like the loss of taste and smell," Quatieri says. "Those symptoms can affect speaking, too."
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What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
With just a few strategical tweaks, the Nazis could have won one of World War II's most decisive battles.
- The Battle of Britain is widely recognized as one of the most significant battles that occurred during World War II. It marked the first major victory of the Allied forces and shifted the tide of the war.
- Historians, however, have long debated the deciding factor in the British victory and German defeat.
- A new mathematical model took into account numerous alternative tactics that the German's could have made and found that just two tweaks stood between them and victory over Britain.
Two strategic blunders<p>Now, historians and mathematicians from York St. John University have collaborated to produce <a href="http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~nm15/bootstrapBoB%20AAMS.docx" target="_blank">a statistical model (docx download)</a> capable of calculating what the likely outcomes of the Battle of Britain would have been had the circumstances been different. </p><p>Would the German war effort have fared better had they not bombed Britain at all? What if Hitler had begun his bombing campaign earlier, even by just a few weeks? What if they had focused their targets on RAF airfields for the entire course of the battle? Using a statistical technique called weighted bootstrapping, the researchers studied these and other alternatives.</p><p>"The weighted bootstrap technique allowed us to model alternative campaigns in which the Luftwaffe prolongs or contracts the different phases of the battle and varies its targets," said co-author Dr. Jaime Wood in a <a href="https://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2020/research/mathematicians-battle-britain-what-if-scenarios/" target="_blank">statement</a>. Based on the different strategic decisions that the German forces could have made, the researchers' model enabled them to predict the likelihood that the events of a given day of fighting would or would not occur.</p><p>"The Luftwaffe would only have been able to make the necessary bases in France available to launch an air attack on Britain in June at the earliest, so our alternative campaign brings forward the air campaign by three weeks," continued Wood. "We tested the impact of this and the other counterfactuals by varying the probabilities with which we choose individual days."</p><p>Ultimately, two strategic tweaks shifted the odds significantly towards the Germans' favor. Had the German forces started their campaign earlier in the year and had they consistently targeted RAF airfields, an Allied victory would have been extremely unlikely.</p><p>Say the odds of a British victory in the real-world Battle of Britain stood at 50-50 (there's no real way of knowing what the actual odds are, so we'll just have to select an arbitrary figure). If this were the case, changing the start date of the campaign and focusing only on airfields would have reduced British chances at victory to just 10 percent. Even if a British victory stood at 98 percent, these changes would have cut them down to just 34 percent.</p>
A tool for understanding history<p>This technique, said co-author Niall Mackay, "demonstrates just how finely-balanced the outcomes of some of the biggest moments of history were. Even when we use the actual days' events of the battle, make a small change of timing or emphasis to the arrangement of those days and things might have turned out very differently."</p><p>The researchers also claimed that their technique could be applied to other uncertain historical events. "Weighted bootstrapping can provide a natural and intuitive tool for historians to investigate unrealized possibilities, informing historical controversies and debates," said Mackay.</p><p>Using this technique, researchers can evaluate other what-ifs and gain insight into how differently influential events could have turned out if only the slightest things had changed. For now, at least, we can all be thankful that Hitler underestimated Britain's grit.</p>
A new study shows our planet is much closer to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center than previously estimated.
Arrows on this map show position and velocity data for the 224 objects utilized to model the Milky Way Galaxy. The solid black lines point to the positions of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Colors reflect groups of objects that are part of the same arm, while the background is a simulation image.
Apple sold its first iPod in 2001, and six years later it introduced the iPhone, which ushered in a new era of personal technology.