Artificial Rabbit Penises, In Vitro Meat, and Other Breakthroughs in Tissue Engineering
From fully-functioning rabbit penises and spray-on skin to ribeye steaks grown in laboratories, here are the most exciting—and bizarre—advances in the new field of tissue engineering.
Bioengineers at Maastricht University have announced the world's first lab-grown meat will be produced this October, a significant step in what could become a DIY food revolution. According to the Financial Times, 70 percent of agricultural land is currently used for raising animals for their meat, so experts argue so-called in vitro meat engineering will become a vital part of future food production. And not surprisingly, this development has reigniting a larger debate on bioethics.
We may be decades away from the time when regenerative medicine cures disease completely, but scientists have already made incredible advancements in growing artificial organs. Below are five of the most groundbreaking examples:
1. Artificial Human Hearts – The first artificial human bladders were successfully transplanted five years ago, but more complex organs like hearts and lungs proved more challenging to grow in the lab—until now. Doris Taylor, a medical researcher at the University of Minnesota, is on the verge of growing the first human heart. After stripping the cells from a dead heart, leaving just a protein skeleton or "ghost heart," Taylor injected this scaffolding with millions of stem cells, which successfully developed into heart cells. The next step is getting these cells to beat, which she believes could happen within weeks. Just two years ago she lead the team that successfully created a lab-grown rat heart.
2. Mouse Retinas – Last month scientists in Japan grew the most complex biological tissue yet engineered in a lab—retina tissue from a mouse eye. Allowed to develop on their own, with some help from structural and developmental proteins, the embryonic stem cells naturally formed the complex structures of the retina. This team, led by Yoshiki Sasai at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, is now testing whether or not this artificial retina can actually detect light and transmit signals to the brain.
3. Spray-on Skin – The traditional treatment for severe burns is to graft healthy skin over the damaged area, but this requires otherwise healthy skin to be removed from another part of the body, doubling the amount of skin that must heal. A procedure developed two-years ago by Australian surgeon Fiona Wood allows doctors to quickly harvest skin stem cells, suspend them in a solution, and spray the stem-cell rich solution directly onto the burn, effectively creating a second skin.
4. Rabbit Penises – Two years ago, Anthony Atala, the Wake Forest researcher responsible for the artificial bladder mentioned earlier, used tissue regeneration to engineer the first fully-functional replacement penises—rabbit penises, that is. Though not yet replicable in men, this technology could one day be used to repair damaged members or perhaps even be used cosmetically. "Oddly, the procedure seemed to make the rabbits randier than usual," reports Wired.
5. In Vitro Meat – Money may never grow on trees, but meat can grow in labs nowadays. Scientists already have the capability to grow synthetic meat tissue or in vitro meat (IVM) from animal cells, but the cost is currently too prohibitive for it to be used widely. Plus there is the problem that many recoil from the idea of eating lab-grown meat. But as the cost comes down and as public awareness of the food industry's practices grows, aversion to IVM might also diminish. From making humans and the planet healthier to solving the ethical dilemma of eating animals, this technology has the potential to revolutionize the way we live.
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
The controversial herbicide is everywhere, apparently.
- U.S. PIRG tested 20 beers and wines, including organics, and found Roundup's active ingredient in almost all of them.
- A jury on August 2018 awarded a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma victim $289 million in Roundup damages.
- Bayer/Monsanto says Roundup is totally safe. Others disagree.
The pizza giant Domino's partners with a Silicon Valley startup to start delivering pizza by robots.
- Domino's partnered with the Silicon Valley startup Nuro to have robot cars deliver pizza.
- The trial run will begin in Houston later this year.
- The robots will be half a regular car and will need to be unlocked by a PIN code.
Would you have to tip robots? You might be answering that question sooner than you think as Domino's is about to start using robots for delivering pizza. Later this year a fleet of self-driving robotic vehicles will be spreading the joy of pizza throughout the Houston area for the famous pizza manufacturer, using delivery cars made by the Silicon Valley startup Nuro.
The startup, founded by Google veterans, raised $940 million in February and has already been delivering groceries for Kroger around Houston. Partnering with the pizza juggernaut Domino's, which delivers close to 3 million pizzas a day, is another logical step for the expanding drone car business.
Kevin Vasconi of Domino's explained in a press release that they see these specially-designed robots as "a valuable partner in our autonomous vehicle journey," adding "The opportunity to bring our customers the choice of an unmanned delivery experience, and our operators an additional delivery solution during a busy store rush, is an important part of our autonomous vehicle testing."
How will they work exactly? Nuro explained in its own press release that this "opportunity to use Nuro's autonomous delivery" will be available for some of the customers who order online. Once they opt in, they'll be able to track the car via an app. When the vehicle gets to them, the customers will use a special PIN code to unlock the pizza compartment.
Nuro and its competitors Udelv and Robomart have been focusing specifically on developing such "last-mile product delivery" machines, reports Arstechnica. Their specially-made R1 vehicle is about half the size of a regular passenger car and doesn't offer any room for a driver. This makes it safer and lighter too, with less potential to cause harm in case of an accident. It also sticks to a fairly low speed of under 25 miles an hour and slams on the breaks at the first sign of trouble.
What also helps such robot cars is "geofencing" technology which confines them to a limited area surrounding the store.
For now, the cars are still tracked around the neighborhoods by human-driven vehicles, with monitors to make sure nothing goes haywire. But these "chase cars" should be phased out eventually, an important milestone in the evolution of your robot pizza drivers.
Check out how Nuro's vehicles work:
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