To Improve Self-control, Focus on the Long-term: Paying Attention Can Mean Making Better Choices
Which would you rather have: an apple or a Kit-Kat bar? It’s not an easy question. The answer depends on many factors, including how hungry you are, how much you like apples and Kit-Kats, what your mood is like, what time of day it is, when you expect to eat next, and the list goes on. However, for the sake of simplicity, let’s assume you like both foods; you haven’t eaten for over three hours; it’s mid-afternoon; and you’re not on any sort of diet at all – you can eat whatever you’d like. Now, which do you choose?
The answer, as it turns out, is still far from simple. And one of the things that might determine which of the two items you ultimately choose to eat is attention: what are you focused on? What are you thinking about? This is precisely the question studied by a group of researchers at Caltech in a recent study.
Attention can determine choice
The researchers asked non-dieting individuals to look at a series of foods, including apples and Kit-Kats, while in a scanner, and for each food, to answer how much they would want to eat it at the end of the experiment. The participants could be in one of three conditions. In the first, they were asked to focus on the healthiness of the food before making their choice; in the second, to focus on the tastiness of the food; and in the third, to think of whatever came naturally to mind. Importantly, they were instructed to make whatever decision they preferred, regardless of condition.
At first glance, the main finding seems fairly self-evident: people who focused on healthiness made healthier choices. However, keep in mind that these were individuals who were not actively dieting and that these same individuals did not make healthier choices in either the free-thought or the tasty-thought condition.
Moreover, the researchers found that in the healthiness condition, underlying brain activity actually changed as participants evaluated and made their choices. Specifically, activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC—an area that is tied to the encoding of value signals and the calculation of value during choice) increased in the healthy condition. And the more health ratings were reflected in vmPFC activity, the more likely it was that an individual would choose to eat the healthy options. As a side-note, in the healthiness condition, brain activity also increased in two specific areas of the left lateral prefrontal cortex that have been linked in the past to cognitive control, working memory, and emotion regulation.
So what does that mean? The right external cues can help us make better choices
So what does that mean for our choices, especially if they have nothing to do with food? The same principle applies not just to healthy food choices, but to choice in general. What you choose to do at any given point—eat a food you probably shouldn’t, spend money you’d rather not—is not predetermined. It depends on any number of momentary considerations. Values are often dynamically constructed – and how exactly they are constructed at a given point can be affected by attention. What are you focusing on? What is salient at the time?
When we focus on the long-term aspects of a given choice, such as healthiness in food, the attention process can actually shift how we value something, even at the level of the brain, and can help us exercise self-control in the immediate term. Cues that help us do this, such as a health cue when we are deciding what to eat, can externally stimulate the same neural networks that are self-activated in individuals who are actively trying to (successfully, I might add) exercise self-control. In other words, we don’t have to try nearly as much, if at all, if we have the right external aids to help at the right time.
The importance of the right cue at the right time
And that final sentence is the crucial point, as we try to use this process to our advantage. Cues surround us all the time and attention goes both ways. If we’re making a food-related choice, any number of external elements can influence our focus. Maybe there’s writing that focuses on taste. Maybe there’s a smell that triggers thoughts of sensory pleasure. Maybe there’s a picture that makes a food look incredibly appealing. All of these cues are contrary to us paying attention to health – and they might make it more difficult to do so.
But if that’s the case, we can take what we’ve learned and create our own health cues, or at the very least, realize that the other cues are subtly influencing our decision and try to take that into account (and again, this applies to everything, not just health and food). The key things to remember are:
(1) Attention matters. What we pay attention to will impact our brains and our choices. And at any given point, our environment is full of some cues. Some are in line with the long-term goals we ourselves have, and so are helpful; but some are opposed to them, and so serve to distract us. Learn to pay attention – and learn to pay attention to what you’re paying attention to. If nothing else, it will give you much better insight into your own thought process.
(2) Timing matters. The right cue will do nothing for you at the wrong time. If you have a reminder for yourself that focuses on health taped to the refrigerator door, but you make your food purchasing decisions at the super market, that reminder won’t do you much good. After all, your choices are limited to what you’ve already bought. Much better to have a reminder that will be present at the moment of the choice that matters (hence some other shopping tactics: not shopping hungry; creating a list beforehand, where you do see your health cue reminder, and sticking to it, though an added benefit might be to write something health-related at the top, as an additional cue).
In this case, the story of self-control is mostly a story of attention. Incidental stimuli can direct your attention in multiple ways and in so doing, influence your ultimate decision. If you are aware of that, you can either play into it, or counteract it; either way, the choice will be placed back in your own hands.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
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