Behind The “Like” Button: Why We Share What We Share
OMG. I better tweet this. Or post it on Facebook. Or click that oh-so-tempting like button. Maybe tumblr? Stumbleupon? Some other sharing service that I’m too slow to have noted, but that I absolutely must must must add now?
Many of us have gone through some modified version of that reaction. We read something, see something, hear something, and the urge to share becomes overwhelmingly, well, urgent. But why? What is it that pushes us from simple passive intake of information to an active desire to pass it on to others?
Well, we might say, it’s just something that I think others—or some specific other—will find interesting or useful or funny. I’m sharing for their benefit.
And yet that explanation also begs the why question. We don’t share every single thing we think someone else would find in some way appealing (that would take far too much time), and sometimes, we share things that could not really, justifiably, if we take a hard line with ourselves, be all that interesting to anyone else (does everyone need to know what I had for breakfast, or that my yoga class this morning was just so amazing?).
So what does it take to pass that sharing barrier, which, granted, is of different heights for different people?
It’s all about arousal
According to Jonah Berger, the answer boils down to one word: arousal. Arousal, as in its physiological sense. In scientific terms, the activation of our autonomic nervous system; in simpler terms, that extra boost of energy, the quickened heartbeat, that tingling of nerves that says, something in the environment has caught my attention.
In one study, Berger told 93 students that they’d be completing two unrelated tasks. First, they watched a video clip. Some watched a neutral segment, and some, one of several emotional segments (the segments could be happy or sad, a manipulation of emotional valence, and amusing or anxiety-provoking, a manipulation of arousal). Then, in the apparently unrelated study, they were shown an article and a video clip that had previously been rated as emotionally neutral and asked, on a scale of 1-7, how willing they would be to share the content with friends, family members, and co-workers.
Who was most willing to share? Only those participants who had been highly aroused, in either a positive or negative direction, prior to viewing the content. The emotional content (happy or sad) did not seem to play any role.
Next, Berger decided to test whether arousal could be completely independent of emotion and still increase the desire to share content with others. He asked another group of students to either sit still or jog in place for 60 seconds, to tap into the purely physiological nature of arousal. Then, in the “unrelated” study, the students read a neutral news article that they could email to anyone if they so desired.
The effect remained the same. The more aroused someone was, the more likely he was to email the story to others. In fact, 75% of the people who had jogged emailed the article, while only 33% of those who sat still did so.
When to ramp it up—or tone it down—a notch
These findings have implications for both content creators and contents consumers and sharers. On the creative end, it’s useful to know that emotional content on its own is not as likely to determine how much attention something gets and how widely it is shared as is its arousal value (Does it make someone anxious? Excited? Nervous? Angry? Making people happy or sad certainly can’t hurt, but it may not always be enough to get that extra edge). And on the sharing end, being aware of the impact arousal has on how likely you are to share something might help make what you share more valuable and more appreciated. Ask: am I sharing because I want to share this specific item, or because I just ran up a flight of stairs? If the content is arousing, share away. If you just happen to be aroused, maybe take a second to reflect before you do (would you share it anyway if you’d just woken up, or had been lying languidly on your couch?).
But then again – maybe you shouldn’t reflect all that much, and I should just get into the habit of catching your attention right after your daily workout.
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To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
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