Anesthesia for cosmetic surgery can (and must) be safer than it is currently
For expediency, general anesthesia is the most common form of anesthesia provided for elective cosmetic surgery. Local anesthesia is typically injected prior to the incision. Unfortunately, the pain of the local anesthesia is transmitted to the brain. This is why scientific (or Level) I studies have failed to document preemptive analgesia.
After providing a sleep level of propofol measured with a brain activity monitor, a dissociative dose of ketamine does block the transmission of the pain signals to the brain and does provide reproducible preemptive analgesia.
There are no Level I studies of dissociative technique. However, the object of those studies to assure reproducibility. As long as the BIS is below 75 prior to injection of ketamine, preemptive analgesia (without the historically reported negative side effects) occurs.
This is a major paradigm shift. It can provide increased safety for cosmetic surgery beyond that provided by general anesthesia.
Journaling can help you materialize your ambitions.
- Organizing your thoughts can help you plan and achieve goals that might otherwise seen unobtainable.
- The Bullet Journal method, in particular, can reduce clutter in your life by helping you visualize your future.
- One way to view your journal might be less of a narrative and more of a timeline of decisions.
Progressive America would be half as big, but twice as populated as its conservative twin.
- America's two political tribes have consolidated into 'red' and 'blue' nations, with seemingly irreconcilable differences.
- Perhaps the best way to stop the infighting is to go for a divorce and give the two nations a country each
- Based on the UN's partition plan for Israel/Palestine, this proposal provides territorial contiguity and sea access to both 'red' and 'blue' America
New research links urban planning and political polarization.
- Canadian researchers find that excessive reliance on cars changes political views.
- Decades of car-centric urban planning normalized unsustainable lifestyles.
- People who prefer personal comfort elect politicians who represent such views.
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