Do Science Journalists Need to Focus More Upstream in Their Coverage?
Matthew C. Nisbet, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Communication Studies, Public Policy, and Urban Affairs at Northeastern University. Nisbet studies the role of communication and advocacy in policymaking and public affairs, focusing on debates over over climate change, energy, and sustainability. Among awards and recognition, Nisbet has been a Visiting Shorenstein Fellow on Press, Politics, and Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, a Health Policy Investigator at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and a Google Science Communication Fellow. In 2011, the editors at the journal Nature recommended Nisbet's research as “essential reading for anyone with a passing interest in the climate change debate,” and the New Republic highlighted his work as a “fascinating dissection of the shortcomings of climate activism."
The most interesting and important things about science often go uncovered in the news media. Journalists and editors--especially in today's world of cutbacks--have always tended to define what's newsworthy in science around the release of a scientific study, in the process rarely covering scientific knowledge as it happens, ignoring the uncertainties, ideologies, personalities, and politics that define laboratories, universities, fields, and funding agencies. There's a strong economy to this tendency among journalists: The news releases provided by universities and journals literally "subsidize" the newsmaking process, making it easier for journalists to decide what's newsworthy and reducing the time and expertise needed to file a story quickly and in 600 words.
The best journalists go beyond the news release, interviewing other experts in order to provide context on the quality of the study and the uncertainties in the research. There's even sometimes a quote from an ethicist to round out the news report.
But only at outlets that still allow longform journalism and that invest in veteran reporters, such as the New York Times, the Guardian, or The New Yorker, or at trade magazines such as The Scientist, or in the occasional book, do journalists begin to shift towards what science communication scholar Alice Bell in a recent blog post calls "upstream science journalism."
Her term derives from the upstream movement in public engagement more generally. Similar to initiatives designed to increase public participation in decisions about the direction of scientific research in emerging fields such as nanotechnology, "upstream journalism" would focus on the politics, personalities, and social factors that drive decisions in a field such as nanotechnology, in realtime, as they are happening. The emphasis is on taking the public "back stage," behind the curtains and the theater that frame the finished product of science. Bell's post is well worth a careful read. Below I add a few additional thoughts to her analysis.
What Would Upstream Science Journalism Look Like?
If the goal is to increase public participation in policy and research decisions, then the news media is essential to achieving this goal, providing the context and the information that communicates the social, ethical, political, and personal relevance of a scientific issue. Without news coverage providing context, the hope and the promise of an upstream engagement movement in science is unattainable.
In order to provide this necessary context, science coverage and journalist norms need to change. Gone would be the standard science journalism narrative of an individual hero scientist (or team) struggling against the complexity and uncertainty of a problem and the personal costs of his/her work. In its place would be a broader, more thematic view of science not as a collection of a few individuals and personalities, but as an institution, with coverage examining research and policy decisions as they are embedded within a social and cultural context that is shaped by norms, economic factors, ideology, and culture. Adapting a phrase from Bruno Latour, as Alice Bell puts it: "Science journalism should follow scientists all the way through society."
This "new science journalism" would require a major cultural shift among not only journalists but also scientific institutions, which would have to live up to their statements about the need for greater public engagement by increasing transparency and access to information about research and policy decisions, and which would need to shift in their marketing away from an emphasis on the hero scientist generating great discoveries to focus on how their institutions interact with communities, decision-makers, and the public around science. (For more on this cultural shift, see this post.)
Strong examples of upstream science journalism exist in several books, perhaps most notably in John Horgan's End of Science and Daniel Greenberg's Science, Money, and Politics. Another relevant example is Chris Mooney's Stormworld.
Perhaps the best example appears not in print but as the CBC radio documentary How to Think about Science. Blogging has also emerged as a major medium for upstream science journalism, with Andrew Revkin's coverage at the NYTimes' Dot Earth as a leading example. [More on blogging in a follow-up post.]
The Benefits of Upstream Science Journalism
There are many likely benefits to an upstream shift in science journalism, the most notable is the increased public understanding and trust that would come with an enhanced societal realism about how science works.
It probably strikes scientists and their institutions as odd that examining the human and social flaws in what they do would improve public perceptions. And it would also mean letting go of a fear of losing control of information, a fear that is problematic in an age of digital and social media.
Yet consider that one of the reasons there was so much shock, attention, and controversy over the Korean cloning fraud, the leaked emails in the "climategate" affair, or the Harvard inquiry into Marc Hauser, is that scientific institutions and journalists have for the most part always portrayed science as far too certain and scientists as far too infallible.
A more thematic realism rather than an episodic framing of science in news coverage would shift public attributions when these types of events happen. Instead of viewing one incident as indicting all of science or a particular field, the public with a greater realism about the uncertainties and social side of science, would be less surprised or alarmed about a single incident of scandal. They would understand that scientific research can be socially constructed but also true. In fact, the public would be more likely to view these incidents as scientists do: concerned but not really that surprised that scientists have big egos or are prone to bias, with several norms in science designed to correct for these bad habits of personality and mind.
As Alice Bell observes, there are also similar benefits to journalists:
I also think science journalism would be served well by taking itself upstream, not only working to show how science is made, but making its own workings more visible too. Upstream engagement was, after all, designed to deal with a crisis in trust. Perhaps a bit more upstream communication would help science journalists to gain trust from their audiences, and from the scientific community. This would include openness, but also involving their audiences (upstream, and meaningfully, not only letting them comment at the end of the process).
What do readers think? Should journalists focus more on the upstream side of science? Are there are other strong examples of upstream science journalism? What role can science blogging play?
Note: Bell's post is based on remarks she gave at London's ScienceOnline 2010 conference. Video of her panel on "Rebooting Science Journalism" which also included Ed Yong, David Dobbs, and Martin Robbins can be viewed at Yong's blog Not Exactly Rocket Science.
Explore how alcohol affects your brain, from the first sip at the bar to life-long drinking habits.
- Alcohol is the world's most popular drug and has been a part of human culture for at least 9,000 years.
- Alcohol's effects on the brain range from temporarily limiting mental activity to sustained brain damage, depending on levels consumed and frequency of use.
- Understanding how alcohol affects your brain can help you determine what drinking habits are best for you.
If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx a team of DNA sequencers has figured that out.
- A team at UMass Amherst recently sequenced the genome of the Canadian lynx.
- It's part of a project intending to sequence the genome of every vertebrate in the world.
- Conservationists interested in the Canadian lynx have a new tool to work with.
If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx, I can now—as of this month—point you directly to the DNA of a Canadian lynx, and say, "That's what makes a lynx a lynx." The genome was sequenced by a team at UMass Amherst, and it's one of 15 animals whose genomes have been sequenced by the Vertebrate Genomes Project, whose stated goal is to sequence the genome of all 66,000 vertebrate species in the world.
Sequencing the genome of a particular species of an animal is important in terms of preserving genetic diversity. Future generations don't necessarily have to worry about our memory of the Canadian Lynx warping the way hearsay warped perception a long time ago.
Artwork: Guillaume le Clerc / Wikimedia Commons
13th-century fantastical depiction of an elephant.
It is easy to see how one can look at 66,000 genomic sequences stored away as being the analogous equivalent of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. It is a potential tool for future conservationists.
But what are the practicalities of sequencing the genome of a lynx beyond engaging with broad bioethical questions? As the animal's habitat shrinks and Earth warms, the Canadian lynx is demonstrating less genetic diversity. Cross-breeding with bobcats in some portions of the lynx's habitat also represents a challenge to the lynx's genetic makeup. The two themselves are also linked: warming climates could drive Canadian lynxes to cross-breed with bobcats.
John Organ, chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cooperative Fish and Wildlife units, said to MassLive that the results of the sequencing "can help us look at land conservation strategies to help maintain lynx on the landscape."
What does DNA have to do with land conservation strategies? Consider the fact that the food found in a landscape, the toxins found in a landscape, or the exposure to drugs can have an impact on genetic activity. That potential change can be transmitted down the generative line. If you know exactly how a lynx's DNA is impacted by something, then the environment they occupy can be fine-tuned to meet the needs of the lynx and any other creature that happens to inhabit that particular portion of the earth.
Given that the Trump administration is considering withdrawing protection for the Canadian lynx, a move that caught scientists by surprise, it is worth having as much information on hand as possible for those who have an interest in preserving the health of this creature—all the way down to the building blocks of a lynx's life.
The exploding popularity of the keto diet puts a less used veggie into the spotlight.
- The cauliflower is a vegetable of choice if you're on the keto diet.
- The plant is low in carbs and can replace potatoes, rice and pasta.
- It can be eaten both raw and cooked for different benefits.
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.