Do Our Media Choices Today Simply Reflect Our Political Identities?
Matthew C. Nisbet, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Communication Studies, Public Policy, and Urban Affairs at Northeastern University. Nisbet studies the role of communication and advocacy in policymaking and public affairs, focusing on debates over over climate change, energy, and sustainability. Among awards and recognition, Nisbet has been a Visiting Shorenstein Fellow on Press, Politics, and Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, a Health Policy Investigator at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and a Google Science Communication Fellow. In 2011, the editors at the journal Nature recommended Nisbet's research as “essential reading for anyone with a passing interest in the climate change debate,” and the New Republic highlighted his work as a “fascinating dissection of the shortcomings of climate activism."
--Guest post by Sarah Merritt, American University doctoral student.
Do people seek news and information through environments on the Web that strongly align with their political identity? Do we always selectively expose ourselves to ideologically like-minded news coverage and selectively avoid information that does not align with our preexisting attitudes?
Understanding the nature of political communication effects and impacts depends in part on the answer to these questions.
In a much discussed 2008 paper by political scientists Lance Bennett and Shanto Iyengar, they argue that in today’s media system of many choices, audiences no longer have a shared context for receiving and interpreting news and information.
They argue that given the strong tendency to selectively seek out like-minded content, our news and online information choices have become synonymous with our political identities. This tendency towards selectivity in turn creates strong incentives for media organizations like Fox News or MSNBC to increasingly tailor and market their content to an ideologically motivated audience. The result is that most forms of news use today serve to reinforce, strengthen and make more ideologically consistent our viewpoints and policy preferences, rather than provide challenging information that might moderate them.
Bennett and Iyengar also suggest a second dimension to this selectively. While motivated news audiences are selecting themselves into ideologically-like minded content sources, those with less interest in public affairs are avoiding news all together, choosing instead to engage with entertainment media and other diversionary content.
In a 2010 response paper, communication researchers Lance Holbert and Kelly Garrett counter that it simply isn’t clear whether people tend to choose the type of information environment that reinforces their preexisting perspectives and strongly avoid information that counters their pre-existing attitudes. Citing a series of studies, the authors assert that while it is true that people are attracted to information with which they agree, they do not necessarily avoid information with which they disagree.
If this avoidance occurs, the process is de facto, driven by the fact that people are simply habitually seeking out ideologically like-minded sources. They also suggest that entertainment media is not without political content or effects, pointing to outlets ranging from the Daily Show and guest appearances on late night comedy programs to the political messages embedded in TV dramas and films.
The relationship between individual media choices, identity, perceptions and decisions will be a topic examined across this semester as part of our doctoral seminar at American University. The debate between these two groups of scholars centers on whether or not existing theories and methods in the field of political communication can adequately account for the changing nature of the news media, campaigns and their influence, or whether or not new theories and methods need to be developed.
--Guest post by Sarah Merritt, a doctoral student at American University’s School of Communication. Read other posts by AU doctoral students and find out more about the doctoral program in Communication at American University.
Bennett, W. L., & Iyengar, S. (2008). A new era of minimal effects? The changing foundations of political communication. Journal of Communication, 58(4), 707-731. [PDF]
Holbert, R. L., Garrett, R. K., & Gleason, L. S. (2010). A new era of minimal effects? A response to Bennett and Iyengar. Journal of Communication, 60(1), 15-34. [Abstract]
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If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx a team of DNA sequencers has figured that out.
- A team at UMass Amherst recently sequenced the genome of the Canadian lynx.
- It's part of a project intending to sequence the genome of every vertebrate in the world.
- Conservationists interested in the Canadian lynx have a new tool to work with.
If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx, I can now—as of this month—point you directly to the DNA of a Canadian lynx, and say, "That's what makes a lynx a lynx." The genome was sequenced by a team at UMass Amherst, and it's one of 15 animals whose genomes have been sequenced by the Vertebrate Genomes Project, whose stated goal is to sequence the genome of all 66,000 vertebrate species in the world.
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Artwork: Guillaume le Clerc / Wikimedia Commons
13th-century fantastical depiction of an elephant.
It is easy to see how one can look at 66,000 genomic sequences stored away as being the analogous equivalent of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. It is a potential tool for future conservationists.
But what are the practicalities of sequencing the genome of a lynx beyond engaging with broad bioethical questions? As the animal's habitat shrinks and Earth warms, the Canadian lynx is demonstrating less genetic diversity. Cross-breeding with bobcats in some portions of the lynx's habitat also represents a challenge to the lynx's genetic makeup. The two themselves are also linked: warming climates could drive Canadian lynxes to cross-breed with bobcats.
John Organ, chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cooperative Fish and Wildlife units, said to MassLive that the results of the sequencing "can help us look at land conservation strategies to help maintain lynx on the landscape."
What does DNA have to do with land conservation strategies? Consider the fact that the food found in a landscape, the toxins found in a landscape, or the exposure to drugs can have an impact on genetic activity. That potential change can be transmitted down the generative line. If you know exactly how a lynx's DNA is impacted by something, then the environment they occupy can be fine-tuned to meet the needs of the lynx and any other creature that happens to inhabit that particular portion of the earth.
Given that the Trump administration is considering withdrawing protection for the Canadian lynx, a move that caught scientists by surprise, it is worth having as much information on hand as possible for those who have an interest in preserving the health of this creature—all the way down to the building blocks of a lynx's life.
The exploding popularity of the keto diet puts a less used veggie into the spotlight.
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- The plant is low in carbs and can replace potatoes, rice and pasta.
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