from the world's big
Why the Republicans Lost
A Failed Voting System in the Primaries Selects Less-Popular Candidates
Mitt Romney won the Republican nomination after building momentum in the primaries in New Hampshire, Florida, Colorado, Arizona, Michigan, and Ohio -- states where he won most or all of the delegates even though his percentage of votes from these states was, respectively: 39%, 46%, 35%, 47%, 41%, and 38%.
The Republican party is at a crossroads after losing a presidential election they should have won. But in the wake of Tea Party polarization, they nominated a candidate who may not have had broad overall support even within his own party. Republicans must ask themselves, “Who would we rather nominate -- a candidate who is loved by 35% of us and disliked by everyone else or a candidate who is liked by 70% of us?”
This is an essential question. Currently, a candidate who is broadly well-liked within the Republican party but is fewer voters’ favorite choice has little chance of winning the nomination, because Republican voters are forced to vote for only one candidate in the primaries. Consider the following example, actual results from the ever-important New Hampshire primary:
Romney - 39% of votes
Paul - 23% of votes
Huntsman - 17% of votes
Clearly, under the current voting system, Romney won somewhat handily. But now, let’s assume the following:
Romney - Loved by 39% of voters, liked by 10% of other voters
Paul - Loved by 23% of voters, liked by 40% of other voters
Huntsman - Loved by 17% of voters, liked by 60% of other voters
In this new example, Romney has support from only 45% of the overall voters (39% love him + 6.1% like him; 10% of the 61% of voters who did not vote for him), but Paul has support from 54% of the overall voters, and Huntsman has support from 67% of the overall voters. Who should win the primary? Which candidate has the broadest overall support amongst Republicans, and who would be the most likely to win in a general election?
Get Rid of the Overvote Rule
A simple way to nominate the candidate with the broadest overall support is to get rid of the overvote rule; that is, allow voters to vote for any and all candidates that they approve of. This is called Approval Voting. The candidate with the most approval votes wins. Now, Republicans would have a clear sense of which candidate had the broadest overall support within their own party.
New Hampshire and the Republican Party in other states should get rid of the overvote rule for primaries and allow voters to vote for any and all candidates on the ballot that they approve of.
How to Apportion the Delegates
The Republican Party in many states, such as New Hampshire, currently apportions delegates based roughly on the percentage of popular vote. In 2012 Romney received 7 delegates (with 39% of the vote), Ron Paul received 3 delegates (with 23% of the vote), and Jon Huntsman received 2 delegates (with 17% of the popular vote).
However, instead of awarding delegates based on the percentage of popular vote, Republican primaries should award delegates based on the percentage of approval votes.
To determine how many delegates each candidate should receive, states should simply add up the approval votes for each candidate as well as the total approval votes for all candidates. They should then apportion delegates accordingly. Consider the following example, assuming these are the only three candidates on the ballot:
Romney - 75,000 approval votes
Paul - 100,000 approval votes
Huntsman - 150,000 approval votes
Romney would receive roughly 23% of the delegates (75,000 approval votes/325,000 total approval votes), Paul would receive roughly 31% of the delegates, and Huntsman would receive roughly 46% of the delegates. Because voters can now vote for any and all candidates that they approve of, these figures are much more reflective of the true will of Republican voters. Is this not more fair than the current system?
Time to Innovate
Republicans are, historically, an innovative political party, willing to adapt in order to win future elections. Using Approval Voting in Republican primaries would ensure that Republicans nominate candidates with broader overall support within their own party. And candidates who are more generally-liked within the Republican party are likely to fare better in general elections, where they will have to gain support from an even wider range of voters to win.
If the Republican party wants to compete in and win future elections, their best way to do so is to use Approval Voting to nominate candidates who are more broadly-liked by the electorate.
Eric Sanders is a New York City-based screenwriter, playwright, and producer who has been active in the voting reform movement since 2005. He is a Board Member of The Center for Election Science, a nonpartisan nonprofit dedicated to election-related scholarship.
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How can we promote the creation of new neurons - and why is it so important?
- Neurogenesis, the birth of neurons from stem cells, happens mostly before we are born - as we are formed in the womb, we are generating most of what we need after birth.
- After birth, neurogenesis is still possible in two parts of the brain: the olfactory bulb (which is responsible for our sense of smell) and the hippocampus (which is responsible for memory, spatial navigation, and emotional processing).
- Research from the 1960s proves creating new neurons as adults is possible, and modern-day research explains how (and why) we should promote new neuron growth.
Two parts of the brain can continue growing through neurogenesis<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjkyMzk2NS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwOTAwODc1MH0.4GDLlZmkwuD0-pJ0s0UWcUoYXMy95a-AM61a_QAlAeA/img.jpg?width=980" id="2e77e" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="4e23499fdf3b2185533979083fd02db7" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="brain made of twigs and plants concept of neurogenesis" />
Neurogenesis is still possible well into adulthood in two very important parts of the human brain.
Image by EtiAmmos on Shutterstock<p>Although most people are aware that aging or bad habits such as heavy alcohol use can contribute to the deterioration of our brains, not many of us give thought to how we can generate new brain cells.</p><p>Neurogenesis, the birth of neurons from stem cells, happens mostly before we are born - as we are formed in the womb, we are generating most of what we need after birth. </p><p><strong>After birth, however, neurogenesis is still possible in two parts of the brain:</strong></p><ul><li>The olfactory bulb, which is a structure of the forebrain that's responsible for our sense of smell. </li><li>The hippocampus, which is a structure of the brain located within the temporal lobe (just above your ears) - this area is important for learning, memory, regulation, of emotions and spatial navigation. </li></ul><p>Of course, when this information first came to light <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13860748" target="_blank">back in the 1960s</a>, the next natural question was: How do we promote neurogenesis in those areas where it's still possible? </p><p>Researchers today believe there are activities you can do (some of them may be things you already do on a daily basis) that can promote neurogenesis in your brain. </p><p><strong>Why is it important to promote the growth of new neurons in adulthood?</strong></p><p>We produce an estimated 700 million neurons per day in the hippocampus - this means by the time we reach the age of 50, we will have exchanged the neurons we were born within that area of the brain with new (adult-generated) neurons. </p><p>If we don't promote this exchange with the growth of new neurons, we may block certain abilities these new neurons help us with (such as keeping our memory sharp, for example). </p>
4 ways to promote neurogenesis in your brain<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjkyMzk2Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNTE3NjczNH0.qyzh_AIUPKfaQIa1QEq4yTNCAAK9nYkH3HFV9vWXwww/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C104&height=700" id="64a68" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="ee1307fe2dd61ae425552da56db3c5ff" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="child playing trumpet concept of learning a new instrument neurogenesis" />
Learning a new instrument helps promote neurogenesis.
Photo by DenisProduction.com on Shutterstock<p><strong>Intermittent fasting</strong></p><p><a href="https://law.stanford.edu/2015/01/09/lawandbiosciences-2015-01-09-intermittent-fasting-try-this-at-home-for-brain-health/" target="_blank">A 2015 Stanford study</a> examined the link between <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-ways-to-do-intermittent-fasting#section1" target="_blank">intermittent fasting</a> and neurogenesis. Calorie restriction and fasting can not only increase synaptic plasticity and promote neuron growth but it can also decrease your risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases and boost cognitive function. </p><p><u>Two of the most common ways you can intermittently fast are: </u></p><ul><li>16 hours per day every day - this is a method where you are able to eat for an 8 hour period of the day and fast for 16 hours of the day. Many people begin their "fast" after dinner, pushing their morning meal far enough towards lunch that most of their "off" eating time happens while they are asleep anyways. </li></ul><ul><li>24 hours every week - this is a method where once a week you fast for an entire day. Some people prefer this method because the rest of the week can resume as normal - but for many, this is a difficult way to fast. </li></ul><p><strong>Traveling to new places</strong></p><p>While traveling is something many of us enjoy — scenic routes and new fun experiences — these things also promote neurogenesis while we're on vacation. <a href="https://www.chicagotribune.com/travel/ct-xpm-2014-01-28-sc-trav-0128-travel-mechanic-20140128-story.html" target="_blank">Paul Nussbaum</a>, a clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Pittsburgh, explains that the mental benefits of traveling are very clear.<br></p><p><em>"When you expose your brain to an environment that's novel and complex or new and difficult, the brain literally reacts. Those new and challenging situations cause the brain to sprout dendrites (dangling extensions) which grow the brain's capacity." </em></p><p><strong>Learning a new instrument</strong></p><p>The mental health benefits of music have long been studied, but did you know that learning a new instrument can promote new neuron growth? </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996135/" target="_blank">this 2010 study</a>, learning to play a new musical instrument is an intense, multisensory motor experience that requires that acquisition and maintenance of skills over your entire lifetime - which of course, promotes the new formation of new neural networks. </p><p>When is the best time to begin learning a new instrument? Childhood, of course. </p><p><em>"Learning to play a new musical instrument in childhood can result in long-lasting changes in brain organization," </em>according to the study mentioned above. </p><p>While learning an instrument in adulthood will also promote neurogenesis, children who began training with a musical instrument before the age of 7 have shown that they have a significantly larger corpus callosum (the area of the brain the allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain) than many adults. </p><p><strong>Reading novels</strong></p><p>A study from <a href="http://esciencecommons.blogspot.com/2013/12/a-novel-look-at-how-stories-may-change.html" target="_blank">Emory University</a> showed there was an increase in ongoing connectivity in the brains of participants after reading the same (fiction) novel. </p><p>In this study, enhanced brain activity was observed in the region that control physical sensations and movement. Reading a novel, according to lead researcher Gregory Berns, can transport you into the body of the protagonist. </p><p>This ability to shift into another mental state is a vital skill that promotes healthy neurogenesis in those areas of the brain. </p>
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- Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.
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Exploring Morality and Selfishness in Modern Times<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="02eX1Cag" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="45cc6180db791f32683988fb52faff26"> <div id="botr_02eX1Cag_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/02eX1Cag-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/02eX1Cag-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/02eX1Cag-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> Philosopher Peter Singer discusses the state of global ethics.
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