Artistic License: Do We Know It When We See It?
Dani Shapiro’s recent New York Times editorial was not the first shot fired in the never-ending debate about the limits of artistic license, but it is one of the most powerful. As the Larry Rivers Daughters Videos story develops, and as Roman Polanski exits house arrest and thanks the Swiss government for his freedom, Shapiro’s reflections remind us that in the case of artists who celebrate or manipulate (depending on your point of view) their subjects, history does not “repeat” itself “first as tragedy and then as farce,” but rather simply repeats itself, full-stop. There is shock and pain and art; there is shock and pain and art. Enforceable change in these cases seems slightly out of society’s reach.
“Artistic license” is most often associated with subtle, if controversial, changes artists make from what others consider fact, or traditional. Yet the transgressions Polanski and Rivers are accused of also fall, for some observers (and almost all parents), into this category, too. It is artistic illicense. Polanski was taking pictures of the young girl he was accused of abusing. She was thirteen. Rivers made videos of his naked daughters. They were also teenagers. These are only two examples but they seem familiar, reliable clichés of what we expect—not only from artists—from people. There is no line in the sand for artists, is there?
Here is another case. The photographer Sally Mann, referenced by Shapiro in her piece (and also the inspiration for a character in one of Shapiro’s novels) is an extraordinary artist. Yet Mann’s work was criticized; her photographs of her exceptionally beautiful children were considered exploitative. There was no challenge of sexual misconduct in her case; still, people felt an artist’s child should be protected from her—in her case, literally speaking—lens. We know the price of accepting this line: we would lose the art. And in Mann’s case, this would have been a hard loss to bear.
So perhaps “artistic license” is not the best phrase. Because we can say there is artistic responsibility, and parental responsibility, and common decency. These are things that cannot be narrowly defined, nor policed. They must, as Justice Potter Stewart said of pornography, be known when we see them, which is to say, when we feel them—in ourselves and in others. Shapiro implies that returning Rivers work to his daughter is right, and redemptive. In that case, this seems inarguably true; Rivers' videos are held by NYU, and they can be returned to the subject, and they are not The Mona Lisa. But the Mann images pose a more complex question: would collectors who own them elect to release them? They are sublime; they are universal; they remind us of the wondrous, risk-littered nature of being a child. In the end, does it come down to, if the art is worth it, further license is granted?
Antimicrobial resistance is growing worldwide, rendering many "work horse" medicines ineffective. Without intervention, drug-resistant pathogens could lead to millions of deaths by 2050. Thankfully, companies like Pfizer are taking action.
- Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are one of the largest threats to global health today.
- As we get older, our immune systems age, increasing our risk of life threatening infections. Without reliable antibiotics, life expectancy could decline for the first time in modern history.
- If antibiotics become ineffective, common infections could result in hospitalization or even death. Life-saving interventions like cancer treatments and organ transplantation would become more difficult, more often resulting in death. Routine procedures would become hard to perform.
- Without intervention, resistant pathogens could result in 10 million annual deaths by 2050.
- By taking a multi-faceted approach—inclusive of adherence to good stewardship, surveillance and responsible manufacturing practices, as well as an emphasis on prevention and treatment—companies like Pfizer are fighting to help curb the spread.
No, the Syrian civil war is not over. But it might be soon. Time for a recap
- The War in Syria has dropped off the radar, but it's not over (yet)
- This 1-minute video shows how the fronts have moved – and stabilised – over the past 22 months
- Watching this video may leave you both better informed, and slightly queasy: does war need a generic rock soundtrack?
Sarco assisted suicide pods come in three different styles, and allow you to die quickly and painlessly. They're even quite beautiful to look at.
Death: it happens to everyone (except, apparently, Keanu Reeves). But while the impoverished and lower-class people of the world die in the same ol' ways—cancer, heart disease, and so forth—the upper classes can choose hip and cool new ways to die. Now, there's an assisted-suicide pod so chic and so stylin' that peeps (young people still say peeps, right?) are calling it the "Tesla" of death... it's called... the Sarco!
Entrepreneur and author Andrew Horn shares his rules for becoming an assured conversationalist.
- To avoid basing action on external validation, you need to find your "authentic voice" and use it.
- Finding your voice requires asking the right questions of yourself.
- There are 3-5 questions that you would generally want to ask people you are talking to.
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.