Department Of Justice Will Investigate Trayvon Martin Killing
Trayvon Martin, from the evidence we can see so far, was not guilty of anything more than being an aimless child on his way home. His death at the hands of George Zimmerman, neighborhood watch captain for a Stanford Florida subdivision was tragic, but the resulting investigation of the shooting by local police would be considered a criminal offense but for the Florida “stand your ground” law. For U.S. Attorney Eric Holder to greenlight federal intervention by his agency, the Department of Justice, to perform an independent investigation of the Stanford police department's actions in an election year environment as contentious as this one has become in and of itself an act of bravery.
But in a case where the shooter, George Zimmerman, has fallen into a new category of American citizen, this special new class of self-deputized lethal assailant who is not processed afterwards as a civilian shooter nor is required to undergo the kind of post shooting procedures that are standard protocol for law enforcement officers who discharge their weapons, any effort to properly investigate this incident begins at a serious disadvantage.
Numerous cases have set the precedent in Florida, with the courts arguing that the law "does not require defendant to prove self-defense to any standard measuring assurance of truth, exigency, near certainty, or even mere probability; defendant's only burden is to offer facts from which his resort to force could have been reasonable." When a defendant claims self-defense, "the State has the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant did not act in self-defense." In other words the burden of proof beyond a reasonable doubt never shifts from the prosecution, so it's surprisingly easy to evade prosecution by claiming self-defense.
The likelihood of the Department of Justice or the FBI uncovering enough new evidence to get George Zimmerman to stand trial for this shooting is very slim. From a political calculus standpoint, this is a no-win situation for Holder, and by extension, the Obama Administration.
“It is the right thing to do”,however, as President Obama is fond of saying, and will no doubt be acknowledging about this particular investigation at some future press conference.
The Trayvon Martin story has been percolating at full boil among the African American end of the blogosphere for the last two weeks, an intraracial protest over the killing of an unarmed African American teenaged boy that has been every bit as prominent among my Twitter timeline as the never ending “Stop Kony” tweets. And until I remembered the real-life incident I experienced a few years ago in the next paragraph, I didn’t know if I had anything worthwhile to say about it.
I’ll never forget the time back in 2008, when I was a mortgage loan officer, when a black male co-worker of mine and I were in the office late. One of our co-workers, a middle aged white woman, stuck her head around the corner of my cubicle, and asked us if anyone else was still in the office. My black co-worker, who had grown up in Alabama, immediately scooted over to his desk, picked up his portfolio and said he was leaving. I followed him out into the lobby. “Hey man” I said, “I thought you had a couple more calls to make tonight.”
He looked at me, his eyes large and serious. “They can wait until tomorrow.”
“I thought you were trying to get those loans closed this month?”
It was his answer that flabbergasted me.
“Man, I’m not going to be in no office alone with no white women.”
“Dude, this is 2008. Are you serious?”
“My momma told me don’t put myself in no situation like that.”
Right off the bat, I was angry that a thirty five year old black man with two college degrees could even begin to believe that two black guys working late with white women co-workers in a business that traditionally kept late hours was problematic. But as I thought about it longer, I had to admit to myself that whether our tutelage was overt or subtle, practically all of us African American males over a certain age had been taught by our parents to beware of getting involved in interracial situations that put us at risk of being considered criminals.
After recalling this incident, a few questions came to mind.
At what point does the responsibility of African American parents to protect their children from the dangers of being stereotyped end and the rest of American society’s duty to see them as human beings who are as precious as their own children begin?
If the incarceration rate among young African American males were to drop by 50%, would the average American’s perception of young black men become more positive?
Are gun cultures the psychosomatic response of societies in which a sense of psychological impotence is rampant?
If the racial frame could be removed from this incident, would our news media have been willing to make the death of Trayvon Martin as much of a national story as the death of Caylee Anthony?
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Great ideas in philosophy often come in dense packages. Then there is where the work of Marcus Aurelius.
- Meditations is a collection of the philosophical ideas of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Written as a series of notes to himself, the book is much more readable than the dry philosophy most people are used to.
- The advice he gave to himself 2,000 years ago is increasingly applicable in our hectic, stressed-out lives.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.