Is Performance Art the New Religion?
According to a Pew Research study, if you count people who change from one type of Protestantism to another, “44% of American adults have either switched religious affiliation, moved from being unaffiliated with any religion to being affiliated with a particular faith, or dropped any connection to a specific religious tradition altogether.” This “very competitive religious marketplace” promises to only get more competitive, as percentages of young people either unaffiliated with a faith or totally unaffiliated being even higher. Why are these people taking their faith to the marketplace? What are they looking for? Is it some kind of different or higher experience? With the stir surrounding Marina Abramović’s current performance art piece, Marina Abramović: 512 Hours at the Serpentine Gallery in London, England, being described frequently as a “religious experience,” is it possible that performance art—the most often ridiculed, poorly understood, but perhaps most vibrant art form today—could be the new religion?
Marina Abramović: 512 Hours takes its title from the number of hours that the performance artist will be spending with the public, approximately 160 visitors at a time, 10 am through 6 pm, 6 days a week, through August 25, 2014. “[V]isitors will both literally and metaphorically leave their baggage behind in order to enter the exhibition: bags, jackets, electronic equipment, watches and cameras may not accompany them,” the exhibition website explains. “The public will become the performing body, participating in the delivery of an unprecedented moment in the history of performance art.” After lining up outside the gallery, visitors will be allowed into the exhibition space of white-walled rooms bare except for a simple stage in one. Abramović (shown above) and her assistants—clad in high-contrasting black—then interact with the public at random. Often Abramović will walk up to a person, whisper something to them, and then lead them to another room where they will possibly have a spiritual experience in which they allow themselves to simply “be” in the exhibition space. Her assistants similarly lead people from place to place, fulfilling the promise of making them “the performing body.” But is this really “the delivery of an unprecedented moment in the history of performance art”?
As the exhibition website also helpfully explains, there’s plenty of precedents thanks to a “historically well established relationship between art and ‘nothingness’; visual artists including Robert Barry, John Cage, Mary Ellen Carroll, Robert Irwin, Yves Klein, Gustav Metzger and Yoko Ono (to name only a very few) have all explored the notion of material absence within their practice.” I’m not sure when Mary Ellen Carroll was added to that list, but I do know that a group of curators and art historians accused Abramović of failing to acknowledge the influence of Carroll’s conceptual artwork based on nothing, especially her 2006 performance piece titled Nothing in which she left her New York City apartment and traveled to Argentina for 6 weeks with nothing but the clothes on her back and her passport. I personally have trouble with someone claiming to own the concept of “nothing” as their territory. Even Seinfeld had an episode back in 1993 pitching “a show about nothing,” but you don’t hear him complaining.
You also don’t hear anyone from the long religious tradition of belief based in nothing complaining. Abramović pledged to “have more and more of less and less” in her 2009 Artist’s Life manifesto, but Buddha beat her to that by about 2,500 years. Not to be sacrilegious, but if you look at any of the great religious figures of history, they all begin to look like performance artists. Buddha made the introspective life of worldly renunciation cool long before Carroll. According to scripture, Jesus Christ performed miracles not just for those witnesses before him, but also for all those who only heard secondhand or more and still believed in a world beyond this one. Judaism, Islam, Hinduism—name any religion and you’ll find some grand performance and/or performers at its birth. Many of those performances involve the idea of renouncing this world for another one or for another state of being, essentially trading something for nothing, like Abramović’s visitors stowing their “baggage” in lockers before entering her sanctuary space.
The parallels between Abramović’s 512-hour performance and religion are obvious (and undoubtedly intentional): a holy space, the charismatic leader, the devoted disciples, and the curious uninitiated longing just for a moment of uplift. In a BBC piece on the exhibition, a young art student told an interviewer, “I really wanted to connect with her, so I said a little prayer… Connecting with her presence was really special. She said, ‘stay here as long as you like, take deep breaths, be present’… It was perfect, really.” The possibility of Abramović reducing an audience member to tears happens frequently enough to inspire a tumblr account of tear-drenched portraits titled “Marina Abramovic Made Me Cry.” I haven’t visited the exhibition myself, but other critics have taken on the “cry challenge” as a point of professional pride. The Guardian’s Zoe Williams admits to a tear or two (joking that she joined “the cult”), but TIME’s Megan Gibson snarkily refuses to well up, although she does admit to a calming, joyous experience. Even those prepared not to be moved often find the performance moving. Freed of the “baggage” of conventional religion, people may find their inhibitions regarding spirituality broken down more easily by performance art simply because it doesn’t look like the religion they’ve come to know and doubt for more worldly than spiritual reasons.
Performance art’s always flirted with cult status. Abramović’s followers look much like Joseph Beuys’ and others’ from decades before. When Chris Burden crucified himself on a Volkswagen in 1974 for Trans-fixed, the message was clear. More subtly religious was Burden’s 1975 Doomed, in which he decided to lay beneath a slanted sheet of glass beside a running wall clock until someone interacted with him. Only when a museum employee placed a pitcher of water within the dehydrated Burden’s reach after more than 45 hours did Burden smash the glass and then the clock—a powerful parable about human compassion, or the lack thereof. Maybe it’s parables like Burden’s and performances like Marina Abramović’s in Marina Abramović: 512 Hours that are what we need to stop shopping for a religion and to start living more spiritually.
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Great ideas in philosophy often come in dense packages. Then there is where the work of Marcus Aurelius.
- Meditations is a collection of the philosophical ideas of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Written as a series of notes to himself, the book is much more readable than the dry philosophy most people are used to.
- The advice he gave to himself 2,000 years ago is increasingly applicable in our hectic, stressed-out lives.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
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