Let's Try to Think Inside the Box, Shall We?
David Berreby is the author of "Us and Them: The Science of Identity." He has written about human behavior and other science topics for The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, Slate, Smithsonian, The New Republic, Nature, Discover, Vogue and many other publications. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the University of Paris, a Science Writing Fellow at the Marine Biological Laboratory, a resident at Yaddo, and in 2006 was awarded the Erving Goffman Award for Outstanding Scholarship for the first edition of "Us and Them." David can be found on Twitter at @davidberreby and reached by email at david [at] davidberreby [dot] com.
"You know what the greatest talent in the world is?" asks the Hollywood bigshot in John Guare's terrific play The House of Blue Leaves. "To be an audience. Anybody can create." On the other hand, to be an audience...
But who wants that job? There aren't any awards in our culture for thinking inside the box, and most Americans are anxious to foster creativity everywhere they can—at work, at home, in themselves, in their kids. The more, the better, right?
Not really, say the psychologist Liane Gabora and her colleague Stefan Leijnen, an artificial intelligence researcher. When you're being creative, you aren't being swayed by the creations of others. Somebody else may have a spectacular idea, but if you're busy with your macaroni sculpture, you won't notice. And if everyone's like you, then no great innovation can spread.
Leijnen and Gabora recently built a simulated society to find the best balance between creation and imitation. They say it showed creativity helps a community when all members get a chance at both roles. In their model, the best ideas catch fire when everyone spends more than half their time listening, and the rest inventing. It's an abstract computer simulation, of course, but that does sound a little like traditional societies, where music, drawing and story-telling aren't specialized jobs.
The researchers did simulate specialist creativity—a society in which 30 percent of the population was creative all the time. For their ideas to be of any benefit to the whole group, though, the other 70 percent of the populace had to imitate all the time. Sounds unpleasant. Also, familiar.
Yes, this is a computational model that used simplified representations of creativity, imitation and success. Still, something feels right in the study's two implications: First, a culture that makes creativity into a special job for special people will alienate those who don't get to play; and, second, we might all be better off worrying less about being creative and more about being receptive. Be an audience. We might all be better off.
Firefighters in California are still struggling to contain several wildfires nearly one week after they broke out.
- Hundreds of people are still missing after three wildfires spread across Northern and Southern California last week.
- 48 of the 50 deaths occurred after the Camp Fire blazed through the town of Paradise, north of Sacramento.
- On Tuesday night, a fourth wildfire broke out, though it's mostly contained.
We know the dangers of too little sleep. Now for the other side of the story.
- Western University researchers found that sleeping over eight hours per night results in cognitive decline.
- Oversleepers suffer similar difficulties on certain cognitive tests as those who sleep under seven hours.
- Not all the news is bad: One night of oversleeping results in a cognitive boost.
Protected animals are feared to be headed for the black market.
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