Attack of the Racist Babies, Part 2
Why It's OK to Talk About White Prejudice Rather Than Prejudice in General
David Berreby is the author of "Us and Them: The Science of Identity." He has written about human behavior and other science topics for The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, Slate, Smithsonian, The New Republic, Nature, Discover, Vogue and many other publications. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the University of Paris, a Science Writing Fellow at the Marine Biological Laboratory, a resident at Yaddo, and in 2006 was awarded the Erving Goffman Award for Outstanding Scholarship for the first edition of "Us and Them." David can be found on Twitter at @davidberreby and reached by email at david [at] davidberreby [dot] com.
My last post was focussed on how white parents talk about race. The reason, of course, is that African-Americans and other minorities in the U.S. aren't in the same boat when it comes to these questions. Claiming that they are -- that we should talk about racism as if it's the same problem for all people -- is one of the false equivalencies of ``color blindness.''
Non-whites can't avoid the subject of skin color, because ``white'' is the default setting in American culture. Whites don't perceive that culture easily, any more than a fish could see the water in which it swims.
So images that seem neutral to whites are reminders to non-whites of their divergence from what was expected. This isn't the result of anyone's conscious decision to be hostile. It happens because people aren't conscious that they have a default setting.
For example, one study of 368 Time and Newsweek magazine covers published between 1990 and 2006 found that when a single person was chosen to represent all 300 million Americans, that photograph was much more likely to be a white person's than you'd expect from the nation's ethnic breakdown.
However, when a small group was used to represent the United States, then the percentage of minority faces was much closer to the actual proportion of nonwhites in the US population. (Sorry, no link right now, I am still searching for the paper. If you know it, dear reader, please leave a comment.)
The study of ``implicit'' bias is booming in social psychology. You can test your own unconscious biases here. Be warned: This isn't your conscious self expressing its principles, so you might be unpleasantly surprised. If so, or if you'd just like to understand the raging debate about the scientific validity of this test, check out this recently published broadside (pdf) from the skeptics.
It's a development that could one day lead to much better treatments for osteoporosis, joint damage, and bone fractures.
- Scientists have isolated skeletal stem cells in adult and fetal bones for the first time.
- These cells could one day help treat damaged bone and cartilage.
- The team was able to grow skeletal stem cells from cells found within liposuctioned fat.
Gut bacteria play an important role in how you feel and think and how well your body fights off disease. New research shows that exercise can give your gut bacteria a boost.
- Two studies from the University of Illinois show that gut bacteria can be changed by exercise alone.
- Our understanding of how gut bacteria impacts our overall health is an emerging field, and this research sheds light on the many different ways exercise affects your body.
- Exercising to improve your gut bacteria will prevent diseases and encourage brain health.
A groundbreaking new study shows that octopuses seemed to exhibit uncharacteristically social behavior when given MDMA, the psychedelic drug commonly known as ecstasy.
- Octopuses, like humans, have genes that seem to code for serotonin transporters.
- Scientists gave MDMA to octopuses to see whether those genes translated into a binding site for serotonin, which regulates emotions and behavior in humans
- Octopuses, which are typically asocial creatures, seem to get friendlier while on MDMA, suggesting humans have more in common with the strange invertebrates than previously thought
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