from the world's big
Study confirms lifting weights reduces depression
A review of 33 trials confirms that loading your body does your brain good.
Last week was a bad week for depression. We lost two cultural icons. Kate Spade's name is ubiquitous in the fashion world. A few days later, waking up at 5 am to discover that Anthony Bourdain took his own life made me do a double, then triple take at my screen. The grief remains palpable for many of us.
There is no singular reason for suicide. In a recent episode of Revisionist History, Malcolm Gladwell discusses the insidious, deadly effects of encephalopathy. Football players suffer tragic consequences from repetitive poundings taken on the field. One of the most emotional episodes of Vice on HBO dealt with the right to die. Euthanasia should be legal for the terminally ill.
But what of us who just feel dissatisfied with life to the point of suffering from a chronic lack of meaning? Depression is often at the root of suicide. No matter how Logic’s massive hit positively impacted the world, suicide rates continue to climb. This shouldn’t be surprising, considering depression rates have also been increasing. That doesn’t make it any less shocking when you run into the consequences of statistics once again. You rarely know the depths of someone else's pain.
While correlation does not always imply causation, these two increasing rates coincide with another: the Internet. Trace the footsteps of each new advancement—widespread adoption of the cell phone, the introduction of the iPhone, the contagion effect of social media—and you find increasing dissatisfaction across the nation. Time spent on devices must be subtracted from other activities, and often those activities involve physical movement. Convenience is never free.
When people say we’re disconnected from nature, what they really mean is we no longer move our bodies. We can pinpoint any geographical location on the planet on a screen, yet what good is this knowledge if we never pass through it? Every digital breakthrough seems to render us more immobile. Some point to a loss of meaning as the philosophical underpinning of suicide, yet what meaning is possible without movement? Even thinking triggers motor neurons. We were built for movement.
An ability to move through our environment created the brains we have. Spatial navigation forms and informs important traits: memory, endurance, creativity, dexterity, ingenuity. Movement makes us healthy. When surrendering this birthright, of course we’ll feel depressed.
This is not to claim that lack of movement is the only cause of depression. But it’s certainly an important one. What also shouldn't surprise us is that exercise reduces rates of depression. Reclaiming what is inherently ours makes us feel good about ourselves. A lifting of depression has been observed in running, yoga, meditation, even walking through forests. Now we can add weightlifting to this list.
This isn’t the first research paper to address this issue; I wrote about prior studies on this site years ago. But this review of dozens of studies offers the first quantitative synthesis of the relationship between resistance exercise training (RET) and depression. Covering 33 randomized clinical trials with 1,877 participants, this is the first time we have a large pool to investigate, and the results are satisfying.
The research paper, led by graduate student Brett Gordon at Ireland’s University of Limerick, notes that 300 million people suffer from depression worldwide, costing the global economy $118 billion. Medication, the authors continue, can be expensive and efficacy is questionable, while psychotherapy is sometimes inaccessible as well as costly. A gym membership might not be the end-all, but it is certainly less expensive and undoubtedly healthier.
Egyptian female weightlifter Sara Samir, known in competitions as Sara Ahmed, 20, takes part in a training session at the Maadi Olympic centre in Cairo on April 18, 2018. (Photo by Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images)
After reviewing the literature, Gordon and team found that regardless of age, sex, or health status, RET is “associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms.” The largest gains were found in adults with elevated symptoms, which gave the researchers hope that RET “may be particularly helpful for reducing depression symptoms in people with greater depressive symptoms.” They also found that supervised workout sessions resulted in larger gains than in unsupervised sessions.
As Gordon says, it’s impossible to blind people for this sort of research—you know who is lifting weights and who is not. As with most studies, the placebo effect could be at work. But given all we know about the benefits of exercise, this is a placebo with few side effects (overexertion and muscle strains being the most prominent). The benefits outweigh any potential risk.
The neurochemistry of movement is beneficial to everyone, including those not suffering from depression. It could be argued that regular exercise staves off depressive symptoms from regular gym goers so that problems never arise. While weightlifting is often associated with “bulking up," such ambitions were absent from study participants: “All that mattered was showing up and completing the workouts.”
Though we often associate lifting weights with a particular mindset, historically humans always loaded their bodies—carrying water from the river, chopping wood, clearing forests, building shelter. It’s only until quite recently when all physical exertion was removed from our daily activities. Trace the depression scale from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and you might find further data to contemplate. Biologically and emotionally we are designed to use our bodies. The results of not doing so are unlikely to be positive.
Sample Melbourne's best coffee without leaving an ecological footprint.
- The massive increase in single-use coffee pods has led to an environmental catastrophe.
- Plastic pods are notorious for their inability to break down in landfills.
- Thankfully, a new wave of eco-friendly compostable pods is coming to the market.
Can an orgasm a day really keep the doctor away?
- Achieving orgasm through masturbation provides a rush of feel-good hormones (such as dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin) and can re-balance our levels of cortisol (a stress-inducing hormone). This helps our immune system function at a higher level.
- The surge in "feel-good" hormones also promotes a more relaxed and calm state of being, making it easier to achieve restful sleep, which is a critical part in maintaining a high-functioning immune system.
- Just as bad habits can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system which can prevent you from becoming sick.
How masturbation affects your brain...<p>Orgasms are a very common human phenomenon. The physical and mental health benefits have been researched frequently as a result, and yet, there is still so much to be learned about how our bodies and brains react to the chemicals and hormones released during and after experiencing this type of sexual release.</p><p>"The amount of speculation versus actual data on both the function and value of orgasm is remarkable" explains Julia Heiman, director of the <a href="https://kinseyinstitute.org/" target="_blank">Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction</a>.</p><p>Masturbation causes a rush of <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/what-is-dopamine" target="_blank">dopamine</a>, which is a chemical that is associated with our ability to feel pleasure. Along with the rush of dopamine that is released during an orgasm, there is also a release of a hormone called <a href="https://www.livescience.com/42198-what-is-oxytocin.html" target="_blank">oxytocin</a>, which is commonly referred to as the "love hormone."<br></p><p>This concoction of chemicals does more than just boost our mood, it also can play a key role in decreasing stress and promoting relaxation. Oxytocin decreases <a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">cortisol</a>, which is a stress hormone that is usually present (in high volumes) during times of anxiety, fear, panic, or distress. </p><p>According to BDSM and fetish researcher <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/dr-gloria-brame-colbert-ga/278388" target="_blank">Dr. Gloria Brame</a>, an orgasm is the biggest non-drug induced blast of dopamine that we can experience. </p><p>By boosting the oxytocin and dopamine levels and subsequently decreasing our cortisol levels, the brain is placed in a more relaxed, euphoric, and calm state. </p>
Masturbation boosts your immune system and raises your white blood cell count.<p>How do those effects on the brain from reaching orgasm translate to boosting our immune system and making our body healthier?</p><p>The increase of oxytocin and dopamine that causes a decrease in cortisol levels can help boost our immune system because cortisol (well-known for being a stress-inducing hormone) actually helps maintain your immune system if released in small doses. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.health24.com/Sex/Great-sex/incredible-health-benefits-to-masturbating-20181030-2" target="_blank">Dr. Jennifer Landa</a>, a hormone-therapy specialist, masturbation can produce the right kind of environment for a strengthened immune system to thrive. </p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316239" target="_blank">A study</a> conducted by the Department of Medical Psychology at the University Clinic of Essen (in Germany) showed similar results. A group of 11 volunteers were asked to participate in a study that would look at the effects of orgasm through masturbation on the white blood cell count and immune system.</p><p>During this experiment, the white blood cell count of each participant was analyzed through measures that were taken 5 minutes before and 45 minutes after reaching a self-induced orgasm. </p><p>The results confirmed that sexual arousal and orgasm increased the number of white blood cells, particularly the natural killer cells that help fight off infections. </p><p>The findings confirm that our immune system is positively affected by sexual arousal and self-induced orgasm and promote even more research into the positive impacts of sexual arousal and orgasm. </p>
Masturbation can ease and prevent pain, which allows you to achieve the restful sleep that helps your immune system stay strong and healthy.<p>The benefits of masturbation have long been debated, but the more research that is done on the topic the more we understand that there are many positive reactions that happen in our bodies and brains when we orgasm.</p><p>Orgasms can help prevent or mitigate pain, which boosts the immune system, preventing cold and flu symptoms. </p><p>According to neurologist and headache specialist Stefan Evers, about one in three patients experience relief from migraine attacks by experiencing sexual activity or orgasm. Evers and his team <a href="https://www.livescience.com/27642-sex-relieves-migraine-pain.html" target="_blank">conducted an experiment</a> with 800 migraine patients and 200 patients who suffered from cluster-headaches to see how their experiences with sexual activity impacted their pain levels. </p><p>The study showed that 60% of migraine sufferers experienced pain relief after participating in sexual activity that resulted in orgasm. Of the cluster-headache sufferers, about 50% said their headaches actually worsened after sexual arousal and orgasm. </p><p>Evers suggested in his findings that the people who did not experience pain relief from migraines of headaches during their sexual activity did not release as large amounts of endorphins as those who did experience pain relief. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.sharecare.com/health/chronic-pain/chronic-pain-affect-immune-system" target="_blank">rheumatologist Dr. Harris McIlwain</a>, people who suffer from chronic pain have immune systems that are simply not functioning at full capacity - therefore, alleviating pain (through orgasm, as an example) can help boost the immune system. </p><p>Orgasms can also promote relaxation and make it easier to fall asleep. Serotonin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine are all hormones that are released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and all three are known for counteracting stress hormones and promoting relaxation, which makes it much easier for you to fall asleep.</p><p>There are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1233384" target="_blank">several studies</a> showing that serotonin and norepinephrine help our body cycle through REM and deep non-REM sleeping cycles. During these sleep cycles, the immune system releases proteins called <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity" target="_blank"><span id="selection-marker-1" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span>cytokines<span id="selection-marker-2" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span></a>, which target infection and inflammation. This is a critical part of our immune response. Cytokines are both produced and released throughout our bodies while we sleep, which proves the importance of a good sleep schedule to a healthy immune system.</p>
Masturbation promotes a high-functioning immune system; a healthy immune system prevents cold and flu.<p>The immune system is a balanced network of cells and organs that work together to defend you against infections and diseases by stopped threats like bacteria and viruses from entering your system. While there are many things we need to do to keep our immune systems functioning at optimal levels, masturbation (or other means of achieving orgasm) has proven to have positive effects on the immune system as a whole.</p><p>Just as bad habits (such as an inconsistent sleep schedule or harmful chemicals in your body) can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system. </p>
Workers are adjusting to their new employment reality on couches and kitchen tables across the nation.
A new study suggests that an old tuberculosis vaccine may reduce the severity of coronavirus cases.
- A new study finds a country's tuberculosis BCG vaccination is linked to its COVID-19 mortality rate.
- More BCG vaccinations is connected to fewer severe coronavirus cases in a country.
- The study is preliminary and more research is needed to support the findings.
Professor Luis Escobar.
Credit: Virginia Tech