Krisztina Holly: It is an interesting challenge that in order to motivate people to excel and do things, it’s part of human nature that there needs to be some sort of incentive. So in the market economy it’s very much based on financial rewards. In academia it is very much based on reputation and so either way there is competition. I do think in academia it’s much more collaborative, so I think that although people can criticize academics at times for holding back certain research results—and it’s not ideal, it’s not optimal—at the same time I do think that there is a real sense of collaboration and the desire to create great results together. But I do think that we do have to be collaborating more and we are collaborating more. A perfect example is the Human Genome project. That would not have come together unless you had many universities and researchers that came together to work for the greater good on this project and ultimately it was clear who the big contributors were. It’s really a part of the whole ethic is to try to be able to track that, but there are challenges because if you’re starting to bring together lots of other people you know you want to make sure that we maintain that ethic for providing acknowledgment to the people who contribute.
We have lots of big challenges ahead of us, whether it is trying to reduce the cost of solar energy or trying to deliver clean water to the whole world or renewable energy in general and global warming. All of these things are going to really need to have large collaborations and I don’t know that we’ve completely figured that out yet. It’s just a prediction that it will cause some pressure and some challenges for universities because right now, especially the larger elite universities they have large research enterprises that they can build on and they can build on their reputation by bringing more research or dollars, and to be doing more exciting research. At the same time if universities are collaborating more on programs then the universities will maybe be asking themselves: "How do we preserve our brand?" Because brand is important in that collaboration. So individual universities need to have a value proposition so that it is not just a place where faculty sit and get a paycheck. Faculty can take their research and they can move to another place, so it will put more pressure on universities to ensure that they’re doing their jobs and creating that innovative environment that enables people to collaborate and work together. That is really one of the huge values of universities and a place like USC, we’ve been around for almost 130 years... absolutely integral to the local community and also within our own we’ve built up this faculty over the years. And that enables us to get the absolute best students to come through. So it’s based on a real foundation and as an example we just need to make sure that we maintain that and we keep growing and we keep increasing that or else we’re not going to be relevant.