"How does 25 million bytes of design information create this entity with hundreds of trillions of connections?" asks Ray Kurzweil. The answer is through redundancy.
Kurzweil compares the task of reverse-engineering the brain to the task of mapping a forrest.
While some might say a forrest is "too complex a concept for us to understand because it's got, you know, trillions of branches, there's millions of trees, and every tree has lots of branches and every branch has lots of different twists and turns and how could we possibly understand that?"
And yet, Kurzweil points to the principles about how a forest is organized, which is actually easier to understand than the concept of a tree. "I think the brain is easier to understand than the concept of a neuron," Kurzweil says. "The basic technologies to enable us to look inside the brain and see its functioning are growing exponentially. And they're at a point now where we can actually see individual interneural connections forming and firing."