Exceptionalism has many negative effects. Here are some of the principal ones: It encourages the mistaken belief that American values and political institutions, because they are deemed superior to anyone else's, will be readily accepted and understood by non-Americans. It makes it difficult for Americans to see the negative sides of what many non-Americans see, fairly or unfairly, in the United States. It thus is difficult for Americans to understand anti-Americanism. It encourages inconsistent one-way application of principles, which often provide another source of resentment of the United States.