In some ways men and women are consistently different, but the significant differences in their brains only pertain to those primitive behaviours which include mating, parenting and aggression. When it comes to higher functions—the skills that arguably make us human—the similarities outweigh the differences. On average, men and women score equally on mathematical and reading ability, for example. Reported differences in empathy, leadership and verbal fluency have all been exaggerated, according to Mr Pfaff. Where differences in these skills do exist, the causes may lie in the social context.