A major surprise from two new genetic surveys is the genetic closeness of the two Jewish communities of Europe, the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim, explains Nicholas Wade. Among other people, historians have taken great interest in the surveys. The data also shows that members of any Jewish community are related to one another as closely as are fourth or fifth cousins in a large population, which is about 10 times higher than the relationship between two people chosen at random off the streets of New York City.