Science journal Nature has defended the World Health Organization's handling of the H1N1 influenza pandemic, amid a European council's claims of unjustified fears and wasted spending. In its latest editorial, Nature says critics tend to forget that, “in spring 2009 the WHO and national officials were struggling with large scientific uncertainties, and the possibility that millions of people would die if the response was inadequate.” “We must learn lessons from the handling of the flu pandemic to improve future research and public-health responses to emerging diseases, but retrospective hindsight and recriminations are not the answer.”