Former Economic Minister of Argentina, Jose Luis Machinea charts a course for spending Latin America's revenue windfall responsibly: "With the exception of Central America, rising commodity prices have improved the external accounts and fiscal positions of Latin American countries. Revenue from natural-resource exports represented 25% of total income in the public sector in 2008. In Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Mexico, it exceeded 40%. This comes to around 7% of GDP in these countries (more than 11% in Venezuela and Bolivia, and 8% in Ecuador and Mexico)..."