Nobel Laureate Gary Becker comments on the release of recent PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) scores which tests 15-year-olds for proficiency in reading, math, and science: "The mediocre performance of the average American student on the PISA and other tests may indicate only that the US school system emphasizes creativity and independent. However, I strongly believe that it is also evidence of the mediocre performance of many American schools."