"For a little over a decade, amid calls for improved quality and greater transparency, insurance companies across the country have been 'incentivizing quality'—shifting away from traditional fee-for-service reimbursement and turning to pay-for-performance programs. Based on the experiences of health maintenance organizations in the mid-1990s with assessing quality, public and private third-party payers started applying many of the same evaluation criteria to individual physicians and linking reimbursement bonuses to similar, if not identical, clinical goals."