"Western-style Holocaust denial—that is, the endeavor to produce pseudo-scientific proofs that the Jewish genocide did not happen at all or was only a massacre of far lesser scope than that commonly acknowledged—is actually very marginal in the Arab world," writes Gilbert Achcar. Rather, many Arabs believe that either the reality of the the massacre of the Jews was amplified to inhibit Western critiques of Zionism; or they express Holocaust-denying views in response to Israel's treatment of the Palestinians, to hurt the country symbolically. "In both cases, Holocaust denial is not primarily an expression of antisemitism, as western Holocaust denial certainly is."