When dealing with the silicon-based computers in common-use today, the question is relatively clear-cut - computer-programs [ or rather, the devices they drive ] cannot be considered 'alive'. However, as the demarcation between man and machine blurs, this answer will lean heavily towards "yes". We are very rapidly approaching the point where biological-elements are at the heart of control-systems. Watch this space for a whole raft of ethical-issues to arise.
When we have virtual-reality bedded-down, we'll wonder what the hell reality was all about [grin].