Photon Energy Limit and the Origins of the Universe

Thomas F. Cechner


Useful physics can be done if there is an energy limit for the photon. Therefore let there be a limit to the energy of a photon following E= hn and E=mc2.

 Too much energy and there would be a quick spontaneous conversion to particle(s) with mass giving m=hn/c2. The energy limit may be as low as the order of magnitude of 1 GeV. In high energy physics there is already some evidence of this phenomenon. Colliding high energy gamma rays create particles with mass. There also appears to be a significant absence of high energy gamma rays in cosmic rays. Naturally appearing gamma rays from radioactive decay appear to end below 1 GeV. The scant evidence of higher energy gamma rays from cosmic rays can be attributed to relativistic photons, that is photons where the emitter and the detector are closing at a very high proportion of the speed of light, increasing the energy level, as in blue shifting visible light photons.

There is also indirect work indicating the possibility of the conversion of high energy electromagnetic waves into particles with mass. An incomplete list: wave particle duality, massive vector bosons at about 100 GeV appear as photons, baryon numbers may not be conserved at high energies, symmetry breaking and asymptotic freedom at high enough energies and the cosmic microwave background radiation may be red shifted 1 GeV gamma rays from the big bang.

If given the existence of high energy photon decay to particles with mass this would imply a separation of forces when the gamma ray decays to particles with additional and new forces. High energy photon decay makes some of the problems with the big bang theory more elementary such as initial gravitational attraction, and separation of the various forces. In the beginning there was one huge energy force packed into a singularity. The next problem to address is how to create such a singularity. Since we practice physics God will not do. Just as the speed of light was once incorrectly conceived as unlimited, given the proper conditions the mass and very existence of a black hole may be limited as well.

From the relativistic effects near the boundary of a black hole a supposition can be made of a boundary with a 2 dimensional, infinite but bounded universe. The relativistic effects of the shortening of distances along the radii of the black hole and the slowing of time near the boundary supports the supposition of the existence of an edge of the 3 dimensional universe with a 2 dimensional universe. Taken to the limit a particle falling into a black hole should be stripped of a dimension. Just as there is a black hole in a 3 dimensional universe, extrapolating the concept into 2 dimensions suggests the possibility and existence of a black hole in a 2 dimensional universe as well in which case there could be a boundary with a 1 dimensional entity consisting of only 1 dimensional, massless particles such as photons. A photon may have the characteristic of 1 dimension due to the Lorentz contraction and polarization effect. Creating a black hole in a 2 dimensional universe may very well be easier due to the elimination of one of the dimensions and reducing the variability or degrees of freedom allowed. Converting all the mass particles to 1 dimensional, massless particles would result in the evaporation of all matter and gravity and an explosion consisting of photons or related massless particles of the black hole. The number of dimensions associated of a photon is difficult to determine as there is no matter to actually measure Any thing less than 3 dimensions in a 3 dimensional universe would imply an intellectual abstraction rather than a visible discernable object as geometrical representations of planes, lines and points are done in 3 dimensional approximations. This philosophy can remind one of quantum mechanics and a probability distribution or smear of a particle locations being an obvious manifestation. In addition the dimensional properties of the electron are poorly understood and the electron may only have the property of 2 dimensions.

I speculate one additional property, that being a strong high energy electromagnetic field will inhibit the precipitation of matter from photons. An interesting philosophical extension from this hypothesis is the ability to look before the big bang.

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